44 Mathematical Functions in Excel (Download Free PDF)

Microsoft Excel has plenty of mathematical functions that help perform various mathematical operations. In this article, you will get to know 44 mathematical functions in Excel. You can also download a pdf of all the mathematical functions in Excel.


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Most Common Excel Mathematical Functions

1. The AVERAGE Function

  • Function Objective:

The AVERAGE function calculates the average of numbers in a range of cells.

  • Syntax:

AVERAGE(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number for which you want to calculate the average.
number2 Optional The second number for which you want to calculate the average.
  • Return Parameter:

The average of all the numbers in a range of cells.

  • AVERAGE Function in Action:

Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf: AVERAGE function


2. The AVERAGEA Function

  • Function Objective:

The AVERAGEA function calculates the arithmetic mean of numbers in a range of cells.

  • Syntax:

AVERAGEA(value1, [value2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
value1 Required The first number for which you want to calculate is the arithmetic mean.
value2 Optional The second number for which you want to calculate is the arithmetic mean.
  • Return Parameter:

The arithmetic means of all the numbers in a range of cells.

  • AVERAGEA Function in Action:

The AVERAGEA Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


3. The CEILING Function

  • Function Objective:

The CEILING function rounds a number away from zero, to the nearest multiple of the significance.

  • Syntax:

CEILING(number, significance)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to round off.
significance Required The number to which you want to round off values.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • CEILING Function in Action:

The CEILING Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf

Read More: How to Use CEILING Function in Excel (With 3 Examples)


4. The COUNT Function

  • Function Objective:

The COUNT function counts the number of cells that contain numbers.

  • Syntax:

COUNT(value1, [value2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
value1 Required The first cell to count.
value2 Optional The second cell to count.
  • Return Parameter:

The count value of a number of cells that contain numbers.

  • COUNT Function in Action:

The COUNT Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


5. The COUNTA Function

  • Function Objective:

The COUNTA function counts the number of cells that are not blank.

  • Syntax:

COUNTA(value1, [value2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
value1 Required The first cell to count.
value2 Optional The second cell to count.
  • Return Parameter:

The count value of a number of cells that are not empty.

  • COUNTA Function in Action:

The COUNTA Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


6. The COUNTBLANK Function

  • Function Objective:

The COUNTBLANK function counts the number of blank cells in a range of cells.

  • Syntax:

COUNTBLANK(range)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
range Required The range within which you want to count the number of blank cells.
  • Return Parameter:

The count number of the blank cells.

  • COUNTBLANK Function in Action:

The COUNTBLANK Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


7. The EVEN Function

  • Function Objective:

The EVEN function rounds up numbers to the nearest even integer.

  • Syntax:

EVEN(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number is to be rounded up to the nearest even integer.
  • Return Parameter:

The rounded up number to the nearest even integer.

  • EVEN Function in Action:

The EVEN Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


8. The FLOOR Function

  • Function Objective:

The FLOOR function rounds a number towards zero, to the nearest multiple of the significance.

  • Syntax:

FLOOR(number, significance)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to round off.
significance Required The number to which you want to round off values.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • FLOOR Function in Action:

The FLOOR Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf

Read More: How to Use FLOOR Function in Excel (11 Examples)


9. The GCD Function

  • Function Objective:

The GCD function calculates the greatest common divisor of two or more integer numbers.

  • Syntax:

GCD(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number to calculate the GCD.
number2 Required  The second number to calculate the GCD.
  • Return Parameter:

GCD of two or more integers.

  • GCD Function in Action:

The GCD Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


10. The INT Function

  • Function Objective:

The INT function rounds up numbers to the nearest integer.

  • Syntax:

INT(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number is to be rounded up to the nearest integer.
  • Return Parameter:

The rounded-up number to the nearest integer.

  • INT Function in Action:

The INT Function : Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf

Read More: How to Use INT Function in Excel (With 8 Examples)


11. The LARGE Function

  • Function Objective:

The LARGE function returns the k-th largest value in a range of numbers or arrays.

  • Syntax:

LARGE(array, k)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
array Required  The range of numbers where to find the largest number.
k Required The position in a range of numbers of arrays that is to return.
  • Return Parameter:

The k-th largest number in an array.

  • LARGE Function in Action:

The LARGE Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf

Read More: LARGE function in Excel


12. The LCM Function

  • Function Objective:

The LCM function calculates the least common multiple of two or more integer numbers.

  • Syntax:

LCM(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required  The first number to calculate the LCM.
number2 Required The second number to calculate the LCM.
  • Return Parameter:

LCM of two or more integers.

  • LCM Function in Action:

The LCM Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


13. The MAX Function

  • Function Objective:

The MAX function returns the largest number in a set of numbers.

  • Syntax:

MAX(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number in the list to return the largest among them.
number2 Optional  The second number in the list to return the largest among them.
  • Return Parameter:

The largest number in a set of numbers.

  • MAX Function in Action:

The MAX Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


14. The MIN Function

  • Function Objective:

The MIN function returns the smallest number in a set of numbers.

  • Syntax:

MIN(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number in the list to return the smallest among them.
number2 Optional The second number in the list to return the smallest among them.
  • Return Parameter:

The smallest number in a set of numbers.

  • MIN Function in Action:

The MIN Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


15. The MMULT Function

  • Function Objective:

The MMULT function returns the matrix product of two arrays.

  • Syntax:

MMULT(array1, array2)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
array1 Required The first array to calculate the matrix product.
array2 Optional The second array to calculate the matrix product.
  • Return Parameter:

Matrix product of two arrays.

  • MMULT Function in Action:

The MMULT Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


16. The MOD Function

  • Function Objective:

The MOD function returns the remainder when a number is divided by a divisor.

  • Syntax:

MOD(number, divisor)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number which you want to divide.
divisor Required The number with which you want to divide another number.
  • Return Parameter:

The remainder, when a number is divided by a divisor.

  • MOD Function in Action:

The MOD Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


17. The ODD Function

  • Function Objective:

The ODD function rounds up numbers to the nearest odd integer.

  • Syntax:

ODD(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number is to be rounded up to the nearest odd integer.
  • Return Parameter:

The rounded-up number to the nearest odd integer.

  • ODD Function in Action:

The ODD Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


18. The PRODUCT Function

  • Function Objective:

The PRODUCT function multiplies all the numbers given as arguments.

  • Syntax:

PRODUCT(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number to multiply.
number2 Optional The second number to multiply.
  • Return Parameter:

The product of input numbers.

  • PRODUCT Function in Action:

The PRODUCT Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


19. The RAND Function

  • Function Objective:

The RAND function returns a random value between 0 and 1.

  • Syntax:

RAND()

  • Arguments Explanation:

It has no argument.

  • Return Parameter:

A random value between 0 and 1.

  • RAND Function in Action:

The RAND Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


20. The RANDBETWEEN Function

  • Function Objective:

The RANDBETWEEN function returns a random number between a top and a bottom number.

  • Syntax:

RANDBETWEEN(bottom, top)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
bottom Required The lowest number of the range.
top Required The highest number of the range.
  • Return Parameter:

A random number between a top and a bottom number.

  • RANDBETWEEN Function in Action:

The RANDBETWEEN Function: Mathematical functions in Excel pdf


21. The ROUND Function

  • Function Objective:

The ROUND function rounds a number to a certain decimal place.

  • Syntax:

ROUND(number, num_digits)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to round off.
num_digits Required The number of digits that you want to allow after the decimal point.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • ROUND Function in Action:

The ROUND Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


22. The ROUNDUP Function

  • Function Objective:

The ROUNDUP function rounds a number off, away from zero.

  • Syntax:

ROUNDUP(number, num_digits)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to round off.
num_digits Required The number of digits that you want to allow after the decimal point.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • ROUNDUP Function in Action:

The ROUNDUP Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel pdf


23. The ROUNDDOWN Function

  • Function Objective:

The ROUNDDOWN function rounds a number towards zero.

  • Syntax:

ROUNDDOWN(number, num_digits)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to round off.
num_digits Required  The number of digits that you want to allow after the decimal point.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • ROUNDDOWN Function in Action:

The ROUNDDOWN Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


24. The SQRT Function

  • Function Objective:

The SQRT function returns the square root of a given number.

  • Syntax:

SQRT(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number to calculate the square root.
  • Return Parameter:

The square root value of a given number.

  • SQRT Function in Action:

The SQRT Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


25. The SMALL Function

  • Function Objective:

The SMALL function returns the k-th smallest value in a range of numbers or arrays.

  • Syntax:

SMALL(array, k)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
array Required The range of numbers where to find the smallest number.
k Required The position in a range of numbers of arrays that is to return.
  • Return Parameter:

The k-th smallest number in an array.

  • SMALL Function in Action:

The SMALL Function: Mathematical Functions in Excel


26. The SUM Function

  • Function Objective:

The SUM function adds values to a range of cells.

  • Syntax:

SUM(number1,[number2],…)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number that you want to add.
number2 Required The second number that you want to add.
  • Return Parameter:

The summation of all the numbers in a range of cells.

  • SUM Function in Action:

The SUM Function


27. The SUMPRODUCT Function

  • Function Objective:

The SUMPRODUCT function calculates the sum of the product of a range of numbers or arrays.

  • Syntax:

=SUMPRODUCT(array1, [array2]…)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
array1 Required The first array to calculate the sum of the product.
array2 Required The second array to calculate the sum of the product.
  • Return Parameter:

The sum of the product of the arrays.

  • SUMPRODUCT Function in Action:

The SUMPRODUCT Function


28. The TRUNC Function

  • Function Objective:

The TRUNC function removes the fractional part from a decimal fraction number.

  • Syntax:

TRUNC(number, [num_digits])

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to truncate.
num_digits Required  The number of digits that you want to allow after the decimal point.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • TRUNC Function in Action:

The TRUNC Function

Read More: SUMPRODUCT() function in Excel


Similar Readings


More Mathematical Functions in Excel

1. The ABS Function

  • Function Objective:

The ABS function calculates the absolute value of a number.

  • Syntax:

ABS(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number to calculate the absolute value.
  • Return Parameter:

The absolute value of a given number.

  • ABS Function in Action:

The ABS Function


2. The AGGREGATE Function

  • Function Objective:

The AGGREGATE function returns an aggregate from a list or database.

  • Syntax:

AGGREGATE(function_num, options, ref1, [ref2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
function_num Required A number from 1 to 19 represents a function.
options Required A number that decides which value to ignore while evaluating the range for a function.
ref1 Required The first number for functions that take multiple numeric arguments for which you want the aggregate value.
ref2 Optional Numeric arguments 2 to 253 for which the aggregate value is determined.
  • Return Parameter:

The aggregate value of a function.

  • AGGREGATE Function in Action:

The AGGREGATE Function


3. The ARABIC Function

  • Function Objective:

The ARABIC function converts roman numerical values to Arabic numerical values.

  • Syntax:

ARABIC( text )

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
text Required A string of text enclosed in quotation marks, an empty string (“”), or a cell reference that contains the text.
  • Return Parameter:

Arabic numerical values.

  • ARABIC Function in Action:

The ARABIC Function


4. The BASE Function

  • Function Objective:

The BASE  function converts a number into a certain radix of text representation.

  • Syntax:

BASE(Number, Radix [Min_length])

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
Number Required The number that you want to convert.
Radix Required The base radix that you want your number to be converted into.
Min_length Optional Minimum length of the returned string.
  • Return Parameter:

A text of certain radix.

  • BASE Function in Action:

The BASE Function


5. The COMBIN Function

  • Function Objective:

The COMBIN function returns the number of possible combinations of a given number.

  • Syntax:

COMBIN(number, number_chosen)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number of items to calculate the combination number.
number_chosen Required The number in each combination.
  • Return Parameter:

The number of combinations.

  • COMBIN Function in Action:

The COMBIN Function


6. The DECIMAL Function

  • Function Objective:

The DECIMAL function converts a given base into a decimal number.

  • Syntax:

DECIMAL(text, radix)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
text Required The item to convert into decimal.
radix Required An integer value that defines the radix.
  • Return Parameter:

The decimal representation of texts.

  • DECIMAL Function in Action:

The DECIMAL Function


7. The EXP Function

  • Function Objective:

The EXP function returns the value of the exponent applied to the base e.

  • Syntax:

EXP(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number that you want to apply to the base e.
  • Return Parameter:

The value of exponent applied to the base e.

  • EXP Function in Action:

The EXP Function

Read More: VBA EXP Function in Excel (5 Examples)


8. The FACT Function

  • Function Objective:

The FACT function returns the factorial of a number.

  • Syntax:

FACT(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number to calculate the factorial.
  • Return Parameter:

The factorial of a given number.

  • FACT Function in Action:

The FACT Function


9. The FACTDOUBLE Function

  • Function Objective:

The FACTDOUBLE function returns the double factorial of a number.

  • Syntax:

FACTDOUBLE(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number to calculate the double factorial.
  • Return Parameter:

The double factorial value of a given number.

  • FACTDOUBLE Function in Action:

The FACTDOUBLE Function


10. The LN Function

  • Function Objective:

The LN function returns the natural logarithm of a number.

  • Syntax:

LN(number)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The number to calculate the natural logarithm.
  • Return Parameter:

The natural logarithm of a given number.

  • LN Function in Action:

The LN Function


11. The LOG Function

  • Function Objective:

The LOG function returns the logarithm of a specific base.

  • Syntax:

LOG(number, [base])

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The positive real number to calculate the logarithm.
base Optional The base of the logarithm.
  • Return Parameter:

The logarithm of a specific base.

  • LOG Function in Action:

The LOG Function


12. The MEDIAN Function

  • Function Objective:
  • The MEDIAN function calculates the median of a range of cells of numbers.
  • Syntax:

MEDIAN(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number to calculate the median.
number2 Optional The second number is to calculate the median.
  • Return Parameter:

The median of all the numbers in a range of cells.

  • MEDIAN Function in Action:

The MEDIAN Function


13. The MROUND Function

  • Function Objective:

The MROUND function rounds off a number to the desired multiple.

  • Syntax:

MROUND(number, multiple)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The fraction number that you want to round off.
multiple Required The number to which you want to round off your number to.
  • Return Parameter:

Rounded off version of an input number.

  • MROUND Function in Action:

The MROUND Function


14. The POWER Function

  • Function Objective:

The POWER function calculates the number raised to a power.

  • Syntax:

POWER(number, power)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number Required The base number to insert.
power Required The exponent to which the base number is raised.
  • Return Parameter:

The result of a number raised to an exponent.

  • POWER Function in Action:

The POWER Function


15. The QUOTIENT Function

  • Function Objective:

The QUOTIENT function returns the integer part of a division.

  • Syntax:

QUOTIENT(numerator, denominator)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
numerator Required The dividend.
denominator Required The divisor.
  • Return Parameter:

The integer part of a division.

  • QUOTIENT Function in Action:

The QUOTIENT Function


16. The SUMSQ Function

  • Function Objective:

The SUMSQ function returns the sum of the squares of the numbers.

  • Syntax:

SUMSQ(number1, [number2], …)

  • Arguments Explanation:
Argument Required/Optional Explanation
number1 Required The first number is to calculate the sum of the squares.
number2 Optional The second number is to calculate the sum of the squares.
  • Return Parameter:

The sum of the squares of the numbers.

  • SUMSQ Function in Action:

The SUMSQ Function


Conclusion

To sum up, we have discussed 44 mathematical functions used in Excel. You are recommended to download the practice workbook attached along with this article and practice all the methods with that. And don’t hesitate to ask any questions in the comment section below. We will try to respond to all the relevant queries asap. And please visit our website ExcelDemy to explore more.


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Mrinmoy

Mrinmoy

Hi! I'm Mrinmoy Roy. I'm an Excel and VBA content developer. I write blogs relating to Microsoft Excel on Exceldemy.com. I've completed my graduation in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Khulna University of Engineering & Technology. I've expertise in Excel functions, formulas, Pivot Table, Power Query, Visual Basic, etc. I write blogs to lessen people's hassles while working on Microsoft Excel.

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