Below is an overview image of how to use the **SQRT** function in Excel.

## Introduction to the SQRT Function

**Function Objective:**

**The SQRT function** in Excel returns the square root of a number.

**Syntax: **

**=SQRT(number)**

**Arguments Explanation:**

Argument | Required/Optional | Explanation |
---|---|---|

number |
Required |
This is the number we are looking for the square root of. A positive number, an Excel formula, or a function that returns a positive value must be read. |

**Return Parameter:** The Excel** SQRT **function returns the square root of a positive number like for number 4 it returns the value 2.

## Examples of How to Use SQRT Function in Excel

**Example 1 – Basic Use of SQRT Function in Excel**

- To calculate the square root, enter the following formula.

`=SQRT(B5)`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

**Example 2 – Apply the SQRT Function in Excel for a Negative Number**

The following image shows what happens when we use the** SQRT** function. For positive numbers, we get the square root, but for negative numbers, we get a **#NUM** error.

This is because a negative number does not have a square root in mathematics. Even if a number is negative, multiplying it by itself produces a positive result.

If you still want to get the square root of a negative number (assuming it was a positive), you’ll need to convert it to a positive number first and then find the square root. You can combine the **SQRT** function with the **ABS** function to calculate the square root of -16, -36, -81.

- To calculate the square root value for a negative number, enter the following formula.

`=SQRT(ABS(B5))`

In this case, **the ABS function** will return a number’s absolute value.

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

**Example 3 – Apply the SQRT Function in Excel for a Fraction Number**

- To calculate the square root value for a fraction number, enter the following formula.

`=SQRT(B5)`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

**Example 4 – Calculating the Length of the Hypotenuse of a Right-Angled Triangle**

- To calculate the length of the hypotenuse, enter the following formula.

`=SQRT(C5^2+D5^2 )`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

**Example 5 – Calculating Standard Deviation in Excel**

- Enter the following formula to calculate the standard deviation.

`=STDEV(C5:C10)/SQRT(COUNT(C5:C10))`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to the right to fill the other cells with the formulas.

** How Does the Formula Work? **

**STDEV(C5:C10)**: This function calculates the dispersion or variability of the data points in cells**C5**to**C10**.

**SQRT(COUNT(C5:C10))**: This function calculates the square root of the count of the values in cells C5 to C10. It determines the sample size of the data set.**STDEV(C5:C10)/SQRT(COUNT(C5:C10)**): This formula will return the standard deviation.

**Example 6 – Calculating the RMS (Root Means Square) Value in Excel**

- To calculate the RMS value, enter the formula below.

`=SQRT(AVERAGE(C5:C11))`

**The AVERAGE function** returns the average of the selected cell numbers.

- Press
**Enter**.

**Example 7 – Calculating the Distance between Two Points in Excel**

- Enter the following formula to calculate the distance between two points.

`=SQRT((C6-E6)^2+(D6-F6)^2)`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

## How to Apply SQRT Function Using the Formulas Main Menu of Excel

The **SQRT** function can also be accessed via the **Formulas main menu**.

- Choose the final cell. Go to the
**Formulas**tab and select**Math & Trig**. - Select
**SQRT**from the drop-down option.

The **Function Arguments** dialog box will open.

- Enter the cell number in the
**Number**section. - Press
**Enter**.

- You will get the following square root value of cell
**B5**.

- Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

## Find Square Root Without the SQRT Function (Using the Power Function)

The **POWER function**, unlike the** SQRT** function, can be used to calculate a number’s roots (such as square root or cube root) or powers (such as square or cube). The **POWER** function is essentially another way to do the square root, namely, raise a number to the power of 1/2.

- Enter the following formula to find the square root.

`=POWER(B5, 1/2)`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to the right to fill the other cells with the formulas.

## Use VBA Code to Show the SQUARE Root of a Number in Excel

VBA has its own separate window to work with. You have to insert the code in this window.

- To open the VBA window, go to the
**Developer**tab on your ribbon. Select**Visual Basic**from the**Code**group.

VBA modules hold the code in the Visual Basic Editor. It has a.bcf file extension. We can create or edit one easily through the VBA editor window.

- To insert a module for the code, go to the
**Insert**tab on the VBA editor. Click on**Module**from the drop-down.

A new module will be created.

- Select the module if it isn’t already selected. Enter the following code.

```
Sub SquareRoot()
Dim i As Integer
i = 5
Do While i < 12
Cells(i, 3) = Sqr(Cells(i, 2))
i = i + 1
Loop
End Sub
```

- Close the Visual Basic window.
- Press
**Alt+F8**.

The Macro dialogue box will open,

- Select the following macro in the
**Macro**name. - Click on
**Run**.

- It will calculate the square roots of the numbers.

## How to Insert Square Root Symbol in Excel

- Enter the following formula to insert the square root symbol.

`=UNICHAR(8730) & B5`

We will pass the number 8730 as the argument of the **UNICHAR** function.

**8730** is the number associated with the square root character. The ampersand sign will be used to concatenate square root symbol with cell** B5**.

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

## Common Mistakes When Using SQRT in Excel

- If the input is a negative number:

Excel cannot determine the square root of a negative value, as was already established. The attempt will result in a **#NUM!** error. Make sure the input value is positive or zero to prevent this problem.

- If you forget to apply the parentheses:

Use parentheses to ensure the proper sequence of operations when combining the **SQRT** function with other functions.

## Why Isn’t My SQRT Function Working?

If the **SQRT** formula isn’t functioning, it could be due to any of the following reasons:

- The value entered is negative.

Excel cannot calculate the square root of a negative value. A **#NUM!** error will be returned as a result of the attempt. To avoid this issue, make sure the input value is positive or zero.

- Use of parentheses incorrectly.

When using the **SQRT** function in conjunction with other functions, parentheses should be used to ensure the right order of operations.

- Typographical errors.

Verify your formula one more time for any errors, such as a misspelled function name or improper cell references.

## How to Find Square Root Without SQRT Function in Excel

**Method 1 – Get Square Root Using the Exponent Formula**

- Enter the following formula.

`=B5^(1/2)`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

**Method 2 – Find Square Root Using the IF Function**

- Enter the following formula.

`=IF(ISNUMBER(B5),B5^(1/2)," ")`

The first argument, **the ISNUMBER function** checks whether the value in cell **B5** is a number. If it evaluates to **TRUE**, the **IF** statement proceeds to the second argument

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

You will see that it results in square root only for the numbers but blank values for the text values.

** How Does the Formula Work? **

**ISNUMBER(B5)**: This function checks whether the value in cell**B5**is a number. If B5 contains a numeric value, it returns**TRUE**; otherwise, it returns**FALSE**.**IF(ISNUMBER(B5),B5^(1/2),” “)**: This is an**IF**statement that has three arguments:

**ISNUMBER(B5) ** checks whether the value in cell **B5** is a number. If it evaluates to **TRUE**, the **IF** statement proceeds to the second argument.

**B5^(1/2)**, calculates the square root of the value in cell **B5**. It raises the value in B5 to the power of **1/2**, which is equivalent to taking the square root.

” “, is the value returned by the **IF** statement if the condition in the first argument (**ISNUMBER(B5)**) is **FALSE**. In this case, if **B5** does not contain a number, it returns an empty string (” “).

**Method 3 – Calculate Nth Root in Excel**

- Calculate the square root value using the exponent formula in column C following
**Method 1**. - Enter the following formula in cell
**D5**.

`=POWER(B5,1/4)`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

The exponential operator has the advantage of allowing you to calculate the square root, cube root, or nth root as well.

You can also use it to find the square, cube or any power of the number.

**Method 4 – Calculate the Square Root with the SERIESSUM Function**

- Enter the following formula.

`=SERIESSUM(B5,1/2,0,1)`

The first value is the value at which we will evaluate the series. In this case, the value is cell** B5**.

The next argument is the starting power of the series. In our case, it is **½**.

The subsequent argument is the progression in the series’ power increase. In this case, we do not want to increase our series power as we have only one number. So, we will set the argument value to zero.

The final argument is the coefficients of the numbers in the series.

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag the
**Fill Handle**icon to fill the other cells with the formulas.

**Method 5 – Calculate the Square Root with Power Query**

** Steps:**

- Convert the dataset into a table by selecting a data value from the dataset, go to the Insert tab and select the
**Table**option.

- Choose the
**Data**tab from the ribbon. - Select
**From Table/Range**.

- In the
**Power Query**window, go to**Add Column.** - Select
**Custom Column**.

A window will pop up.

- In the
**Custom Column**window, name the new column in the**New column**name box. We named it**Square Root**. - In the
**Custom column****formula**enter the following formula.

`=Number.Sqrt([Number])`

- Click
**OK**.

- Go to the
**Home**tab of the**Power Query**window. - Select
**Close & Load.** - From the drop-down option, select
**Close & Load.**

- We will get the square roots of the numbers in a new window and in a new column named “
**Square Root**”.

## FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

**1. Are there any limitations to using the SQRT function in Excel?**

Yes, there are limitations to using the **SQRT** function in Excel. It can only find the square root of non-negative numbers, and it returns the positive square root of a given number. Additionally, the **SQRT** function has a limit to the number of decimal places it can return.

**2. What other functions can I use in conjunction with the SQRT function in Excel?**

You can use a variety of functions in conjunction with the **SQRT** function in Excel, depending on your specific needs. For example, you can use the **SUM** function to find the sum of a set of values before finding their square root, or the **AVERAGE** function to find the average of a set of values before finding their square root.

**3. How do I format the output of the SQRT function in Excel?**

You can format the output of the **SQRT** function in Excel by selecting the cell containing the function and then applying the desired formatting options, such as changing the number of decimal places, applying a currency format, or changing the font and cell color.

## ✍ Things to Remember

✎ Make sure that fractions (such as 1/2 or 1/3) are enclosed in brackets when applying the exponential operator. For Example, =4^(1/2) and =4^1/2 produce two different outcomes. This is because the exponential operator is calculated first, rather than division. The problem is solved by using brackets.

✎ A **#NUM** error will be returned if you use a negative number in the **POWER** function.

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