## Introduction to ROUND Function

**Function Objective**

The **ROUND** function is a powerful tool for rounding numbers based on a specified number of digits. Whether you need to round up or round down, this function has you covered.

**Syntax**

The syntax for the ROUND function is as follows:

`=ROUND (number, num_digits)`

**Arguments Explanation
**

Arguments | Required/Optional | Explanation |
---|---|---|

number |
required | The value you want to round. |

num_digits |
required | The number of decimal places to which you want to round the numeric argument. |

**Return Value**

The ROUND function provides a rounded numerical value.

**Note**

- When the number of digits is between 1 and 4, the
**ROUND**function rounds down. For 5 to 9 digits, it rounds up. - To always round up, consider using the
**ROUNDUP**function. Conversely, the**ROUNDDOWN**function always rounds down. - The number of digits significantly affects the output. Let’s explore the different forms of rounding:

Number of Digits | Forms of Rounding |
---|---|

>0 | Rounds to the decimal point |

0 | Rounds to the nearest integer |

<0 | Rounds to the nearest 10, 100, etc. |

## Dataset Overview

Here’s an overview of the dataset that we’ll use in our examples.

### Example 1 – Positive Number of Digits

Suppose you have a dataset with unit prices, and you want to round them based on the number of digits. Let’s say the unit price is in cell **C5**, and the number of digits is in cell **D5**. Here’s how you can do it:

- Select cell
**E5**. - Enter the following formula:

`=ROUND(C5,D5)`

- Press
**Enter**. The result in cell**E5**will be**89.6**.

**AutoFill**the formula to the rest of the cells in**column E**.

### Example 2 – Negative Number of Digits

When the number of digits is **negative**, the ROUND function **rounds** to the **nearest** **multiple** of **10**, **100**, etc. Repeat the same method as in **Example 1**.

`=ROUND(C5,D5)`

### Example 3 – Nearest Whole Number

For **zero** **digits**, the **ROUND** function rounds to the **nearest whole number**. Follow these steps:

- Select cell
**D5**. - Enter the formula:

`=ROUND(C5,0)`

- Press
**Enter**. The output in cell**D5**will be**90**.

**AutoFill**the formula to the rest of the cells in**column D**.

### Example 4 – Rounding to Two Decimal Places

To round a number to **two decimal places**, enter the formula:

`=ROUND(C5,2)`

Where **C5** is the **number**, and **2** represents the **desired decimal places**.

### Example 5 – Specific Rounded Value

Suppose you need a specific rounded value, such as rounding to the nearest **0.99**. Follow these steps:

- Select cell
**D5**. - Enter the formula:

`=ROUND(C5,0)-0.01`

**Formula Breakdown**

**ROUND(C5,0)**rounds to the**90**.- After subtracting
**01**, you’ll get the desired number.

- Press
**Enter**and the result will be**89.99**.

**AutoFill**the formula to the rest of the cells in**column****D**.

### Example 6 – Rounding Up to Nearest 10/100/1000

#### i. Round Up to the Nearest 10

To find the rounded number to the nearest multiple of **10**, enter the following formula:

`=ROUND(C5,-1)`

#### ii. Round Up to the Nearest 100

For rounding to the nearest multiple of **100**, enter:

`=ROUND(C5,-2)`

#### iii. Round Up to the Nearest 1000

To calculate the rounded number to the nearest **1000** (or a multiple of that), enter:

`=ROUND(C5,-3)`

### Example 7 – Rounding Time in Excel Using the ROUND Function

You can also apply the **ROUND** function to time values. Since Excel stores dates and times as serial numbers, the function calculates time as a serial number. To display the result as time, follow these steps:

#### i. Rounding to the Nearest Hour

A day has **24** hours, thus the formula will be:

`=ROUND(D5*24,0)/24-INT(D5)`

Here, the **INT** function subtracts the date portion.

- Format the fraction values as shown in the screenshots below:

(Note: Images are for illustrative purposes only)

- Select the cells from
**D5**to**D9**and copy this range using the**Ctrl + C**keyboard shortcut. Paste the copied portion using the**Ctrl + P**simultaneously.

- Select the cells from
**E5**to**E9**and press**Ctrl + 1**simultaneously.

- A
**Format Cells**dialog box will pop up. - From the
**Format Cells**dialog box, select**Number**. - Under
**Category**, select**Custom**and select**h:mm**as**Type**.

- The fraction values have been formatted into
**h:mm**format.

#### ii Rounding to the Nearest 15 Minutes

Since a day has **96** intervals of **15** **minutes** each, enter:

`=ROUND(C5*96,0)/96`

### Example 8 – Rounding the Total of Two Numbers

Consider two numbers (e.g., price in June and price in July). To find the rounded total value, enter:

`=ROUND(C5+D5,0)`

### Example 9 – Rounding the Quotient of Two Numbers

For the quotient of two numbers, enter:

`=ROUND(D5/C5,0)`

## Common Errors While Using ROUND Function

- Remember that the
**#VALUE!**error occurs when text is inserted as input**.**

**Download Excel Workbook**

You can download the practice workbook from here:

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