Today I will be showing how you can use the VLOOKUP function of Excel in the following article.

**VLOOKUP Function of Excel (Quick View)**

The following image is a quick view of Excel **VLOOKUP.**

**Table of Contents**hide

## Introduction to Excel VLOOKUP Function (Syntax & Argument)

__Summary:__

The **VLOOKUP** function looks for a given value in the leftmost column of a given table and then returns a value in the same row from a specified column.

It is available in **Excel 2003** and **all later versions**.

__Syntax:__

The **Syntax** of the **VLOOKUP** function is:

**=VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,[range_lookup])**

__Arguments:__

Argument | Required/Optional | Value |
---|---|---|

lookup_value | Required | The value that it looks for is in the leftmost column of the given table. Can be a single value or an array of values. |

table_array | Required | The table in which it looks for the lookup_value in the leftmost column. |

col_index_num | Required | The number of the column in the table from which a value is to be returned. |

[range_lookup] | Optional | Tells whether an exact or partial match of the lookup_value is required. 0 for an exact match, 1 for a partial match. The default is 1 (partial match). |

**Note:**

- The
**lookup_value**can be a single value or an array of values. If you enter an array of values, the function will look for each of the values in the leftmost column and return the same row’s values from the specified column. - The function will look for an approximate match if the
**[range_lookup]**argument is set to**1**. In that case, it will always look for the lower nearest value of the**lookup_value**, not the upper nearest one. - If the
**col_index_number**is a fraction in place of an integer, Excel itself will convert it into the lower integer. But it will raise**#VALUE!**error if**the col_index_number**is zero or negative.

__Return Value:__

Returns the value of the same row from the specified column of the given table, where the value in the leftmost column matches the **lookup_value**.

**Available in:**

Excel 365 | Excel 2021 | Excel 2021 for Mac | Excel 2019 | Excel 2019 for Mac | Excel 2016 | Excel 2016 for Mac | Excel 2013, 2010, 2007 | Excel for Mac 2011 | Excel Starter 2010

## How to Use the VLOOKUP Function in Excel: 8 Suitable Examples

When the **lookup_value** is a single value, it searches for the value in the leftmost column of the given **table_array**.

- If it finds one, then it moves to the specified number of columns right given as
**col_index_num**in the same row. - After moving to the specified number of columns right, it returns the value from the destination cell.
- In the following figure, the formula is:

`=VLOOKUP("shane Lee",B6:D10,3,FALSE)`

- First, it searches for “
**Shane Lee”**in the leftmost column**B**of the**table_array****B6:D10**. - Then it finds one in cell
**B8**. Then it moves to column**3 (col_index_num)**of the table, in the same row. That is cell**D8**. - And then it returns the value from that cell, in this case, it is the salary of Shane Lee, $22000.00.

We have already seen the basic use of **VLOOKUP.** Now, in this section, we will see 7 more handy examples, some of them used **VLOOKUP** alone, and some of them need a combination of **VLOOKUP** with **other Excel functions**.

### 1. Finding Out the Holder of Maximum Value from a Dataset

Let us have a look at this dataset first.

We have the **employee IDs**, **employee names**, and **salaries **of a company named Saturn Group in columns **B, C,** and **D** respectively.

- Now we shall try to find out the holder of the maximum ID using the
**VLOOKUP**function. - The formula will be:

`=VLOOKUP(MAX(B5:B21),B5:D21,2,0)`

- See, we have found the Employee with the maximum ID, Angela Mills with an ID of 372.

**🔎**** Explanation of the Formula:**

**MAX(B5:B21)**returns the maximum value between B4 to B20 (Employee IDs). In this case, it is 372. So the formula becomes:**VLOOKUP(372,B5:D21,2,0)**- Then it searches for an exact match of the
**lookup_value**372 in the leftmost column**B**of the**table_array****B5:D21**. It finds one in cell**B20**. - Finally, it moves to column
**2**(**col_index_num**) of the same row, to cell**C20.**And returns what it gets there. Here it is Angela Mills, the employee with the maximum ID.

### 2. Finding Out the Holders of Top n Values from a Dataset

We try to determine the holders of any top n values from a data set using the **VLOOKUP** function.

- Let’s find out the employees with the top 5 IDs from the same data set.
- The formula will be:

`=VLOOKUP(LARGE(B5:B21,ROW($A$1:$A$5)),B5:D21,2,0)`

See, we have got the employees with the top 5 IDs.

**🔎**** Explanation of the Formula:**

**ROW(A1:A5)**returns an array of numbers from 1 to 5,**{1,2,3,4,5}**. For details, see**this article**.**LARGE(B5:B21,ROW(A1:A5))**becomes**LARGE(B5:B21,{1,2,3,4,5}).**It then returns the top 5 IDs from cells**B5**to**B21.**These are:**{372,317,309,293,267}**.**VLOOKUP(LARGE(B5:B21,ROW(A1:A5)),B5:D21,2,0)**then becomes**VLOOKUP({372,317,309,293,267},B5:D21,2,0).**It is a combination of a total of 5 formulas.

**♦ VLOOKUP(372,B5:D21,2,0)**

**♦ VLOOKUP(317,B5:D21,2,0)**

**♦ VLOOKUP(309,B5:D21,2,0)**

**♦ VLOOKUP(293,B5:D21,2,0)**

**♦ VLOOKUP(267,B5:D21,2,0)**

**VLOOKUP(372,B5:D21,2,0)**searches for an exact match of**372**in the leftmost column**B**of table**B5:D21**. After finding one, it moves to the 2nd column of the same row of the table, then returns the name of the employee. In this case, Angela Mills.- The rest of the formulas do the same. Thus we get the list of the employees with the top 5 salaries.

**Note:**

It’s an** array formula**. So press **Ctrl + Shift + Enter **unless you are in** Office 365**.

### 3. Find an Approximate Match with Excel VLOOKUP Function

In the case of an approximate match (when the** [range_lookup]** argument is zero), the function always looks for the lowest nearest match.

- In the following figure, the formula is:

`=VLOOKUP(G4,B5:D9,2,1)`

- Here, the
**[range_lookup]**argument is 1, so it searches for an approximate match. - The
**lookup_value**is 168. It settles in 135, the lower nearest value to 168, and returns the corresponding Employee Name, Natalia Austin. - But the upper nearest value 169 is far closer, still, it does not go there.

### 4. Match Multiple Lookup Values with Excel VLOOKUP Array Formula

Again, when the **lookup_value** is an array of values in place of a single value, the function searches for each of the** lookup_values** in the leftmost column of the **table_array** one by one.

- In the following figure, the formula is:

`=VLOOKUP(G4:H4,B6:D10,3,FALSE)`

- It first searches for G4
- Then it searches for
**H4**(Alfred Moyes) in the table and returns his salary, $22000.

**Note:**

Note that, you have to press **Ctrl + Shift + Enter** to enter an **Array Formula** unless you are in **Office 365**.

### 5. Combine the CHOOSE Function with Excel VLOOKUP to Match Multiple Conditions

**The VLOOKUP** **function** can be used to extract data for multiple criteria lookups. But alone it cannot do that. You can combine **CHOOSE, IF,** or **MATCH** functions to match multiple criteria with VLOOKUP. In this example, we will see a **VLOOKUP-CHOOSE formula** in this regard.

Let us get introduced to the dataset for this example.

Here, we have the Brand, Model, Chipset, RAM, and Price data of some mobile phone companies.

- We set two criteria, Brand and Model, to get the corresponding Price in cell
**C18.** - The formula will be:

`=VLOOKUP($D$15&$D$16,CHOOSE({1,2},$B$5:$B$13&$C$5:$C$13,$F$5:$F$13),2,FALSE)`

### 6. Use a Helper Column and Merge VLOOKUP with the MATCH Function for Multiple Criteria

In this example, we will see an easier alternative to the previous formula to match multiple criteria with **VLOOKUP.** This time, we will combine **the MATCH function** with **VLOOKUP,** and before that, we will need to add a helper column to the leftmost position of the dataset.

- In the following image, we can see the formation of a helper column where we have concatenated the Brand and Model columns with the following formula.

`=C5&D5`

- Then apply the following formula in the output cell to get the desired result.

`=VLOOKUP(D15&D16,B5:G13,MATCH(B18,B4:G4,0),FALSE)`

### 7. Combine VLOOKUP with INDIRECT Function to Lookup Across Spreadsheets

In the last example, we will see how we can use **the VLOOKUP function** to look up values across multiple sheets. To do this, we will need the help of **the INDIRECT function**. Let’s first introduce the dataset.

We have 4 sheets named Jan, Feb, Mar, and Apr with the data for the months of January, February, March, and April. The following is a glimpse of them.

- Now, we will create another sheet that contains the datasheet names. Note that, you have to write the names of the sheets accurately word by word if not you want to get errors.

- Okay, now you will create a named range for the range
**B3:B6**.

- Create the named range and name it
**Lookup_Sheet_List.** - If your name contains multiple words, you have to put underscores in between.

- Now, go to your main sheet where you want to perform lookup operations. Here, we are looking up Order nos.
- In
**cell C5,**input the following formula.

`=IFNA(VLOOKUP($B5, INDIRECT("'"&INDEX(Lookup_Sheet_List,MATCH(1, --(COUNTIF(INDIRECT("'" & Lookup_Sheet_List &"'!$B$3:$B$6"), $B5)>0), 0)) & "'!$B$5:$D$9"), 2, FALSE), "Not found")`

- Similarly, to get Amounts, input the following formula in the column beside.

`=IFNA(VLOOKUP($B5, INDIRECT("'"&INDEX(Lookup_Sheet_List,MATCH(1, --(COUNTIF(INDIRECT("'" & Lookup_Sheet_List &"'!$B$3:$B$6"), $B5)>0), 0)) & "'!$B$5:$D$9"), 3, FALSE), "Not found")`

- Note that, you have to change the column index number accordingly.

For these formulas, credit goes to **ablebits**.

### 8. Using the VLOOKUP Function to Lookup to the Left

We know that **VLOOKUP** cannot look up values from the left-side columns of the input range. But wait, that’s not the last truth about **VLOOKUP**! You can combine **the IF function** with **VLOOKUP** to look up from the left columns of input ranges. In this part of this article, we will see how to do that.

- This time, we want to look up the Employee’s Name and get the corresponding ID.
- The formula will be:

`=VLOOKUP(G4,IF({1,0},C5:C9,B5:B9),2,0)`

Here, **{1,0}** inside the **IF** function is important, if you alter the sequence, i.e. put {0,1} instead, the formula will not work as expected.

## Common Errors with Excel VLOOKUP Function

The **VLOOKUP** function has the following common errors.

Error | When They Show |
---|---|

#N/A! | Shows when it does not find a match of the lookup_value in the leftmost column. |

#VALUE! | Show when an argument of the function is of the wrong data type. For example, when the col_index_number is negative, or a text or the [range_lookup] argument is not 0 or 1. |

## Limitations of Excel VLOOKUP Function

Though **VLOOKUP** is one of the most used functions in Excel, it has some limitations. Here are some of these-

- The
**first limitation**of**the VLOOKUP function**is that you can not use it when the**lookup_value**is in a column right next to the required value.

For example, in example 1, you can not use**the VLOOKUP function**if you are asked to find out the employee with the maximum salary. Because the salary is in a column right to the required value, the employee name.

You can use the**XLOOKUP**or**INDEX-MATCH formula**of Excel to come out of this limitation.

- Another limitation is- if you have the
**lookup_value**more than once,**the VLOOKUP function**will only provide you with information about the first one it gets.

For example, in the data set of example 1, there are two employees named Mathew Rilee. Now if we want to get the salary of Mathew Rilee, we will only get the salary of the first one, $28000.

You can solve this problem using **the FILTER function**.

- In the case of an approximate match,
**the VLOOKUP function**always settles for the lower nearest value of the**lookup_value**, even when the upper nearest value is closer (See the 3rd point of the**Explanation**Section). **The VLOOKUP function**does not update automatically when you insert a new column. To get rid of this problem, you can use the**INDEX-MATCH**function of Excel.

**Download Practice Workbook**

You can download the following practice workbook that we used to write this article. You can practice along with it while reading this write-up.

## Conclusion

In this way, you can use the VLOOKUP function of Excel to extract a value or an array of values matching another value from any dataset in Excel. Do you have any other questions? Feel free to inform us.

Thanks for your teaching in Excel. You gave me a lot of insight into the new features of Excel 365

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Ruben!It’s glad to know that our content is helpful to you. To know more about Excel stay in touch with ExcelDemy.

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