How to Perform Regression Analysis in Excel? (3 Methods)

Get FREE Advanced Excel Exercises with Solutions!

Regression Analysis helps to predict values depending on two or more variables. In this article, we will show you how to perform regression analysis in Excel using 3 methods based on functions and built-in features. It also covers how to interpret the results of regression analysis in Excel. We also show how to make a linear regression graph in Excel.

While preparing this article, we used Microsoft Office 365 for applying all operations but they are also applicable in all Microsoft Office since Office 2010.

Excel is a popular tool for doing regression analysis because it has a user-friendly interface and a variety of features. In addition, Excel provides a range of functions dedicated to regression analysis.

overview of regression analysis excel


Download Practice Workbook


What Is Regression Analysis?

Regression analysis is an important statistical tool. It deals with predicting values that depend on two or more variables. Regression analysis allows researchers to identify trends in a dataset. Regression analysis can be used to predict future trends by examining the direction and slope of the regression line.

The dependent variable is the variable that you are trying to explain by measuring the independent variable.

Independent variables affect the dependent variable.

1. What Is Simple Linear Regression?

Simple linear regression shows the relationship between a single independent and dependent variable. It can be calculated by the following mathematical equation:

Y=mX+C+E

The variables are,
Y = Dependent Variable
m = Slope of the Regression Formula
X = Independent Variable
C = Intercepted value of the Y-axis
Ε = Error Term, the difference between the actual value and predicted value.


2. What Is Multiple Linear Regression?

Multiple linear regression shows the relationship between a dependent variable and several independent variables. The equation for calculating multiple regression analysis is as follows.

Y=b+b1X1+b2X2+….bnXn

Where,
Y is the dependent variable
b is the intercept
X1 and X2 are the independent variables
b1 and b2 are coefficients of the corresponding independent variables.


How Many Ways to Perform Regression Analysis in Excel?

There are multiple methods you can use for performing regression analysis in Excel. We go in-depth about the methods. Follow along with the methods described below!

1. How to Perform Regression Analysis in Excel Using LINEST Function?

We can use the LINEST function to perform regression analysis very easily in Excel. The syntax of the LINEST function is as follows:

=LINEST(known_y’s, [known_x’s], [const], [stats])

We use the following dataset to perform regression analysis using the LINEST function.

dataset used for regression analysis excel

  • Go to cell C17 to insert the following formula and press Enter.
=LINEST(D5:D14,C5:C14)

using linest function for regression analysis

Formula Explanation:

D5:D14 is the range of independent variable data points.

C5:C14 is the range of the dependent variable data points.

Note:
The LINEST function returns an array. If your Microsoft Office version is older than Office 365, then you have to press Ctrl + Shift + Enter simultaneously instead of Enter. The formula will look like this.

using linest as array formula


2. How to Perform Regression Analysis Combining INTERCEPT, SLOPE, and CORREL Functions?

We can perform regression analysis by applying INTERCEPT, SLOPE, and CORREL functions in Excel.

  • Insert the following formula on Cell D16 to get the value of C which represents the intercepted value of the Y-axis.
=INTERCEPT(D5:D14,C5:C14)

calculating intercept of y using intercept function

  • Now, we will use this value to calculate the slope m. Insert the following formula on cell D17.
=SLOPE(D5:D14,C5:C14)

using slope function to calculate slope

  • Insert the following formula on cell D18 to calculate Correlation Co-efficient.
=CORREL(C5:C14,D5:D14)

calculate correlation coefficient


3. How to Perform Regression Analysis in Excel Using Data Analysis ToolPak?

The easiest way to perform simple and multiple linear regressions in Excel is by utilizing the Analysis ToolPak.

3.1 How to Perform Simple Linear Regression in Excel?

We have the following dataset to perform simple linear regression analysis. To perform simple linear regression analysis using Data Analysis ToolPak, you have to enable it first. To enable Analysis ToolPak:

  • Go to File tab > Options.
  • Excel Options window will appear.
  • Select Add-ins >> Choose Excel Add-ins option from the Manage drop-down list >> Click on Go.

select Excel Add-ins and click on Go

  • Add-ins dialog box pops up. Check Analysis ToolPak >> click on OK.

check Analysis ToolPak and click on ok

  • As a result, you will be able to use the Data Analysis ToolPak.
  • After enabling Analysis ToolPak, go to the Data tab > Data Analysis.

select data analysis from the data tab

  • A popup window appears.
  • Select Regression and click on OK.

select regression from popup window and press OK

  • The Regression dialog box pops up.
  • Insert data range or values in the Input Y Range, Input X Range, and Output Range.
  • Check Residuals to determine the error between the predicted and actual values.
  • You can even select a new worksheet to show the output there. Click on OK.

input values for calculating simple linear regression analysis

  • Simple linear regression analysis is done and the result of the regression analysis is shown.

Result of simple linear regression analysisFor a detailed view click on the image.


3.2 How to Perform Multiple Linear Regression Analysis in Excel?

To perform multiple linear regression analysis, we have the following dataset. Our dataset consists of the price of the car varies depending on the Maximum Speed, Peak Power, and Range.

dataset for multiple linear regression analysis

  • Performing multiple linear regression analysis using Analysis ToolPak is essentially the same as simple linear regression analysis. The only difference is in the input range.
  • Input the corresponding values and click on OK.

input values for multiple linear regression analysis

  • Multiple linear regression analysis is done and the results are displayed.

multiple linear regression analysis result


How to Interpret Regression Analysis Result?

Performing regression analysis is quite easy. However, understanding the output may seem difficult if you do not know what the terminologies mean. We will try to explain the simple regression analysis result that we have performed.

Summary Output

summary output

Multiple R: Multiple R indicates the correlation between variables. Its value ranges from -1 to 1. The bigger positive the value, the stronger correlative the relationships are.

  • 1 indicates a strong positive correlation between the variables.
  • -1 indicates a strong negative correlation between the variables.
  • 0 indicates that there is no correlation at all between the variables.

R Square: It symbolizes the Coefficient of Determination. It indicates how well the data model fits the Regression Analysis. An R-squared value of more than 95% is generally regarded as a good fit for a regression model. In our example, the value of 0.997 is pretty good. The regression analysis model is a good fit for the data, as almost 99% of the values fall within the predicted range.

Adjusted R Square: The value of R^2 is used in multiple variables Regression Analysis instead of R square. The adjusted R-squared is a metric that takes into account the number of independent variables included in the model.

Standard Error: It shows a healthy fit of Regression Analysis. A smaller number for the regression equation provides increased certainty in its accuracy and reliability. It shows the average distance of data points from the Linear equation.

Observations: The number of iterations in the data model.


ANOVA

ANOVA output

ANOVA means Analysis of Variance. It is the second part of the analysis result.

df: df expresses the Degrees of Freedom. It can be calculated using the df=N-k-1 formula where N is the sample size, and k is the number of regression coefficients.

SS: SS (Sum of Squares) symbolizes the good to fit parameter. The Sum of Squares is the square of the difference between a value and the mean value. The higher value of the Sum of Squares refers to a higher variation in the values or vice-versa.

MS: It means the Mean Square. Mean Square is mainly the mean of the square of the variation of an individual value and the mean value of the set of observations.

F: F refers to the Null Hypothesis. It tests the overall significance of the regression model. If you divide the MS of regression by the MS of Residual, you’ll get the F-test.

Significance F: The P-Value of F. Significance F is a crucial term to find the output of your model whether it is statistically significant or not. When the value of the Significance F is not greater than 0.05, the independent variables have a statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable.


Coefficients

coefficient output

It helps to calculate the Y values easily. You can build a linear regression equation with the help of this.

Standard Error: Simply it is the standard deviation of least square estimates.

t Stat: It refers to the coefficient being equal to zero in the case of the null hypothesis.

P-value: The P-value shows the statistically significant relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Here, P-value for Unit Price is 0.000003 which is below 0.05. So, Unit Price is statistically significant with the Sales.

Lower 95%: It means the lower limit when the confidence interval is 95%.

Upper 95%: It is the upper limit of the confidence interval.


Residual Output

residual output

It compares the estimated value with the calculated value.


How to Make Linear Regression Graph in Excel?

Charts can visually represent the relationship between the variables of linear regression.

  • Select the regression data and go to Insert tab > Charts group > Scatter.

choose scatter chart

  • The chart has been created.
  • Click on the Plus(+) symbol on the top right side of the chart area and tick Trendline from Chart Elements section.

select trendline from chart elements

  • We select the Dash type as Solid with a Red color to make the trendline stand out.

select dash type and preferred colorFor a detailed view click on the image.

  • From the Format Trendline menu, check Display Equation on chart.

format trendline to show equation on chart


What Things You Have to Remember?

  • Regression analysis hampers heavily by outliers. All kinds of outliers must be removed before regression analysis is done.
  • Enable Analysis ToolPak before regression analysis.
  • Linest is an array formula. Use it accordingly.
  • Identify X and Y values correctly.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What types of regression analysis can I perform in Excel?

Ans: Excel supports various types of regression analysis, including simple linear regression, and multiple linear regression, among others.

2. What does the R-squared value in Excel regression analysis indicate?

Ans: The R-squared value, also known as the coefficient of determination. It represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that is explained by the independent variables. A higher R-squared value indicates a better fit of the regression model.

3. Are there any limitations to using Excel for regression analysis?

Ans: Yes, Excel has limitations in terms of handling very large datasets and complex regression models. Specialized statistical software may be more suitable for advanced analyses.


Conclusion

Regression analysis is a statistical technique that is used to determine the relationship between two or more variables in Excel. We use Regression analysis in many fields in our day-to-day lives. Excel is a popular tool for regression analysis because of its many features. We have shown you three methods to perform regression analysis in Excel. We have also shown how to interpret the results of regression analysis and the way to make a regression analysis chart.

Read the article thoroughly to learn how to perform regression analysis in Excel easily. Feel free to use the comment box if you have any questions or suggestions regarding the article. Visit ExcelDemy if you have any questions regarding Excel, we have numerous articles on Excel.


Regression Analysis in Excel: Knowledge Hub


<< Go Back to Excel for Statistics | Learn Excel

What is ExcelDemy?

ExcelDemy - Learn Excel & Get Excel Solutions Center provides online Excel training , Excel consultancy services , free Excel tutorials, free support , and free Excel Templates for Excel professionals and businesses. Feel free to contact us with your Excel problems.
Maruf Niaz
Maruf Niaz

Md. Maruf Niaz, BSc, Textile Engineering, Bangladesh University of Textiles, has worked with the ExcelDemy project for 11 months. He works as an Excel and VBA Content Developer who provides easy solutions to Excel-related problems and regularly writes fantastic content articles. He has published almost 20 articles in ExcelDemy. As an Excel & VBA Content Developer for ExcelDemy, he offers solutions to complex issues. He demonstrates an enthusiastic mindset and adeptness in managing critical situations with finesse, showcasing... Read Full Bio

We will be happy to hear your thoughts

Leave a reply

Advanced Excel Exercises with Solutions PDF

 

 

ExcelDemy
Logo