In this article, I will show you several techniques of using Excel formula to compare two columns and return a value. Your necessity might be different, so I will show several scenarios in my article.

Check out the scenarios and the relevant Excel formulas.

Table of Contents

- 1) Compare two columns and return value from third column (using VLOOKUP formula)
- 2) Compare two columns and return value from third column (using INDEX and MATCH functions)
- 3) Two columns lookup
- 4) Compare two columns and list differences in the third column
- 5) Compare two columns row by row
- Download the working file
- Related Readings

## 1) Compare two columns and return value from third column (using VLOOKUP formula)

In the following spreadsheet, you are seeing a list of some Projects and their Managers. In cell **D2**, the **Project coordinator** might input a **Project** name and want to see who the **Manager** of the **Project** is.

Input this formula in cell **E2: =IFERROR(VLOOKUP(D2,project_manager,2,FALSE), "Not Assigned")**

### How does this formula work?

To understand this formula, you have to know the syntax of **IFERROR** and **VLOOKUP** Excel functions.

Take a look at the following image. If you observe the image carefully, you will find that the formula is actually self-explanatory.

If you don’t know how Excel’s **VLOOKUP** formula works, then give it a revision (from the image below)

## 2) Compare two columns and return value from third column (using INDEX and MATCH functions)

We shall work again with the same data but this time we shall use this formula in cell **E2: =IFERROR(INDEX(B2:B16, MATCH(D2,A2:A16,0)), "")**

This time if no matching is found, the cell will show blank as **IFERROR** function’s **value_if_error** argument is blank.

### How does the formula work?

Check out the following image.

These are the steps to analyze the above formula:

**Step 1:****Match**function returns the relative position of**lookup_value****D2**. Say, the value is**DD**. It will return 4 as**DD**is in 4^{th}position in the**lookup_array****$A$2:$A$16**. If no matching was found, MATCH function would return an error value.**Step 2:****INDEX**function searches for the 4^{th}value in the array**$B$2:$B$16**. And it finds value,**John**. So, for this example, INDEX function will return value,**John**.**Step 3: IFERROR**function finds a valid value for its**value**So, it will return the value. If it would find an error value, then it would return blank.

I hope you got how this formula works. Always try to break down a complex formula into pieces to make it easy.

## 3) Two columns lookup

This is another scenario. You have a worksheet like the following image.

You want to conduct a lookup on the table to match two different values from two columns. If matching is found, it will return data from the 3^{rd} column.

You cannot perform two columns lookup with regular Excel formulas. You have to use an **Array formula**.

Input this formula in cell **F4: {=INDEX(C2:C11,MATCH(F2&F3, A2:A11&B2:B11,0))}**

At first, put the above formula in cell **F4** without the curly braces

Then press **CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER** on your keyboard. You will get the formula is input as an array formula.

### How does this array formula work?

At first, let’s understand the **Match** function part.

You can imagine this array formula as a series of the following formulas:

**MATCH(F2&F3, A2&B2,0)****MATCH(F2&F3, A3&B3,0)****MATCH(F2&F3, A4&B4,0)**- … … …
- … … …
**MATCH(F2&F3, A11&B11,0)**

This series will be stored in Excel memory as **MATCH (JamesSmith, {"MarissaMayer"; "MarissaAhmed"; "MarissaKawser"; "ArissaAhmed"; "ArissaKawser"; "JamesClark"; "JamesSmith"; "JohnWalker"; "JohnReed"; "JohnLopez"}, 0)**

From the above MATCH function, what will be returned? **MATCH** function will return 7 as **JamesSmith** is found at position 7 of the array.

The rest is simple. In the array of **C2:C11**, 7^{th} position is value **210745**. So, the overall function returns **210745** in cell **F4**.

If you fail to understand how this array formula works: check out my link.

## 4) Compare two columns and list differences in the third column

This is another scenario. You are seeing a worksheet below. There are two lists. What I want are:

- Compare the two lists
- Show the values of
**List 2**under a new column but without the values that are also in**List 1**

We use this formula in cell **C2: =IF(ISNA(MATCH(B2, $A$2:$A$8,0)),B2, "")**

And then copy it for other cells in the column. We get the following results as shown in the figure below. You are seeing only those **List 2** values are showing in the new column that are not in the **List 1**.

### How does this formula work?

When you analyze a complex formula, start with the function that does not have any other functions in it. In this formula, that is the **MATCH** function.

Let’s break down the formula into pieces:

**Match**function will search for cell value**B2**in the range**$A$2:$A$8**. If it finds a match, it will return the position of the value, otherwise, it will return the**#N/A.**Value**600**of cell**B2**is not found anywhere in the list. So, the**Match**function will return the**#N/A**error.**ISNA**function returns**TRUE**if it finds the**#N/A**error, otherwise it will return a**FALSE**In this case, ISNA will return TRUE value as Match function returns #N/A error.- When
**ISNA**function returns a**TRUE**value,**IF**function’s**value_if_true**argument will be returned and it is**B2**, the value of**B2**is**600**. So, this formula will return 600 as value.

## 5) Compare two columns row by row

You might also want to compare two columns row by row like the following image.

We have used this formula in cell **C2: =IF(A2=B2, "Matched", "Not Matched")**

This is a straightforward Excel IF function. If the cells **A2** and **B2** are same, **“Matched”** value will show in cell **C2** and if the cells **A2** and **B2** are not same, then **“Not Matched”** value will show as the output.

This comparison is case-insensitive. **“Milk”** and **“milk”** are treated as same in this comparison.

We can use the **EXACT **function to find the exactly matched values. Just change the formula like this: `=IF(EXACT(A2,B2), "Matched", "Not Matched")`

You see now “**Milk”** and “**milk”** are treated differently. They are not same.

Here is the syntax of the **EXACT** function. It takes two text values as arguments, if they are **case sensitively exact**, the function returns the **TRUE** value, otherwise, the function returns the **FALSE** value.

**EXACT (text1, text2)**

## Download the working file

## Related Readings

- How to Sum Multiple Rows and Columns in Excel
- How to divide columns in Excel (Top 8 ways)
- VLOOKUP Formula to Compare Two Columns in Different Sheets!
- How to Insert Formula in Excel for Entire Column (5 Smart Ways)
- How to Compare Two Columns in Excel Using VLOOKUP
- How to apply same formula to multiple cells in Excel

So, these are my ways of comparing two columns in Excel and return a value based on the comparison. Do you know any other better techniques? Let me know in the comment box. I am eager to update this article.

Thank you very much. First of all, sorry for my bad english, than i want to congrats you for this lection and you have made in me one of the fan of your blog.

Thanks for your feedback. It means a lot to us. Keep following our website for more useful articles.

Very clearly explained. This was a great help!

Thanks for the feedback.

Thanks a lot, I liked your lesson, and liked your way of explaining (how does this formula work?) I like it so much. Thanks again.

Thank you for this comprehensive and useful tutorial 🙂