**Semi Variance** evaluates the variation among the observations in a sample. Semi-variance dealsÂ with the observations that are below the average of the dataset, or mean, or a target value only. The general formula to calculate semi-variance is:

**Semi Variance = sum of ((observed value below mean – mean)^2) / number of observations below mean**

The dataset below contains month-wise investment returns.

To calculate semi-variance and estimate the downside risk of this investment:

### Method 1 – Combine the SUM and the COUNT Functions to Calculate Semi Variance in Excel

Combine **the SUM** and the **COUNT functions**.

**STEPS:**

- Select
**C18**. - Use the formula:

`=AVERAGE(C5:C16)`

- Press
**Enter**. **The AVERAGE function**will return the average of the dataset.

- Click
**D5**. - Enter the formula:

`=IF(C5:C16<D18,C5:C16,"")`

- Press
**Enter**. - Drag down the Fill Handle.
**The IF function**returns values smaller than the average:**D18**.

- Select
**D19**. - Use the formula:

`=AVERAGE(D5:D16)`

- The new mean of the returns less than the original sample average is returned.

- Click
**E5**. - Enter the formula:

`=IF(D5<>"",(D5-$D$19)^2,"")`

- Press
**Enter**and apply the**AutoFill**. - The square of the differences will be returned.

- To calculate the
**semi-variance**, select**D20**. - Enter the formula:

`=SUM(E5:E16)/COUNT(E5:E16)`

- Press
**Enter**. - The
**COUNT**function determines the total count of the cells with numbers in**E5:E16**. - The semi-variance is displayed.

**Read More:** How to Calculate Variance of Stock Returns in Excel

### Method 2 – Applying the SUM, IF, and COUNTIF Functions to compute the Semi Variance

**STEPS:**

- Select
**C18**. - Enter the formula:

`=AVERAGE(C5:C16)`

- The sample mean is returned.

- Select
**C19**. - Enter the formula:

`=AVERAGE(IF(C5:C16<C18,C5:C16,""))`

- The
**IF**function returns values smaller than the sample mean. - The
**AVERAGE**function calculates the average of the**IF(C5:C16<C18,C5:C16,””)**formula outputs.

- In
**C20**, use the formula:

`=SUM(IF(C5:C16<C18,(C5:C16-C19)^2,""))/COUNTIF(C5:C16,"<833.75")`

- Press
**Enter**. - The
**IF**function determines the square of the differences between each value in**C5:C16**Â smaller than the old mean (**C18**) and the new mean in**C19**. - The
**SUM**function sums the**IF(C5:C16<C18,(C5:C16-C19)^2,””)**formula outputs. - The
**COUNTIF**function counts the number of cells smaller than**75**or the old mean. - This is the semi-variance.

**Read More:** Budget vs Actual Variance Formula in Excel

### Method 3 -Using the VAR.P Function to Calculate the Semi Variance in Excel

**STEPS:**

- Calculate the mean in
**C18**, following the steps described in the previous methods. - Select
**C19**. - Enter the formula:

`=VAR.P(IF(C5:C16<C18,C5:C16))`

- Press
**Enter**. - The
**IF**function returns the values less than**C18**(the sample mean). - The semi-variance is displayed.

**Read More:** How to Do Price Volume Variance Analysis in Excel

## How to Calculate the Semi Deviation in Excel

The semi-deviation measures the dispersion of the observations. It only deals with samples that are below the mean value or a target.

To calculate the **Semi Deviation:**

**STEPS:**

- Find the mean in
**C18**. - Select
**C19**. - Enter the formula:

`=STDEV.P(IF(C5:C16<C18,C5:C16))`

- Press
**Enter**. - The
**STDEV.P**function calculates the standard deviation. - The
**IF**function to finds the semi-deviation and returns values smaller than**C18**(the sample mean). - The semi-deviation is displayed.

**Read More: **How to Calculate Portfolio Variance in Excel

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