How to Calculate T Score in Excel (4 Easy Ways)

If you are searching for the solution or some special tricks to calculate the T score in Excel then you have landed in the right place. There are 4 quick ways to calculate the T score in Excel. This article will show you each and every step with proper illustrations so, you can easily apply them for your purpose. Let’s get into the central part of the article.


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What Are T-Value and T-Distribution?

T-values is a test in statistics that is used in the hypothesis test to evaluate the sample data. When the t value becomes extreme then you have to understand that the sample data is not compatible with the null hypothesis so you have to reject the hypothesis. The t-score for the sample dataset extracts the relation between the sample and the null hypothesis which are as follows:

  • The t-score becomes zero when the sample data meets the null hypothesis target accurately.
  • The sample data becomes extremely different from the null hypothesis then the t-score becomes large.

What Is T-Distribution?

After calculating the t-value for the full population, you may try more times for random sample data of the same size as the population. Then, plotting the t-values in a graph will create the t-distribution. It is called sample distribution which is one type of Probability Distribution.

How to Calculate T Score in Excel

In statistics calculation, the t-score is used in many ways.

  • The t-score helps to decide whether you will accept or reject the null hypotheses.
  • You can calculate the probabilities from the T-score.
  • Different formulas are used for a single sample, paired sample, and independent samples.

What Are T-Score Formulas?

The t score or t-test is a hypothesis test that is used to compare sample datasets. It may be preferable for you to use the T score when you don’t have the standard deviation of the full dataset and the sample dataset is less than under thirty. The formula of the T score is as follows:

t Score Formula

Here,

= Mean of the sample

μ0 = Mean of the population

s = Standard deviation of the sample dataset

n = Sample size

Formula of Paired Sample T-Test:

If you want to compare 2 sample datasets using the generic formula then you have to use this formula:

Formula of Paired Sample T-Test

Here,

Mean 1 = Average of the first sample data

Mean 2 = Average of the first sample data

S (Difference) = Standard Deviation of the difference of paired data.

N = Sample size

Formula of Two Samples Assuming Equal Variances:

For the case of equal variances, use the formula shown below:

Formula of Two Samples Assuming Equal Variances

Formula of Two Samples with Unequal Variances:

Formula of Two samples with Unequal Variances

T-Distribution and Sample Size:

The sample size has a large influence on the t distribution graph. The degree of freedom (DF) depends on the size of the dataset. When the DF increases, the t-distribution tails become thicker and the thicker tail means that the t-scores are far from zero despite being the null hypothesis correct.


4 Methods to Calculate T-Score in Excel

In this section, I will show you 4 quick and easy methods to calculate the T score in Excel on Windows operating system. You will find detailed explanations of methods and formulas here. I have used Microsoft 365 version here. But you can use any other versions as of your availability. If any methods don’t work in your version then leave us a comment.

1. Calculate T-Score Using Data Analysis ToolPak in Excel

Now, we are going to use Excel Data Analysis ToolPak to T-Test analysis of the dataset. The T-Test is of three types:

  • Paired two samples for means
  • Two samples assuming equal variances
  • Two- samples using unequal variances

Now, we are going to do a t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means. And you can use a similar way to do a t-test for the other two types. Here, we have a dataset containing the Students’ IDs and each student’s Math and Physics scores. Let’s walk through the steps to do a t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means analysis.

Using Data Analysis Tools

📌 Steps:

  • First, go to the Data tab in the top ribbon.
  • Then, select the Data Analysis

Using Data Analysis Tools

  • When the Data Analysis window appears, select the t-Test: Paired Two Samples for Means
  • Then, click on OK.

How to Calculate T Score in Excel

In the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means pop-up box,

  • Insert data in the Input box, and provide the data ranges in the Variable 1 Range and Variable 2 Range
  • In the Output Range box, select the data cell that you want your calculated data to store by dragging through the column or row. Or you can show the output in the new worksheet by selecting New Worksheet Ply and you can also see the output in the new workbook by selecting New Workbook.
  • Next, you have to check the Labels if the input data range with the label.
  • Then, click on OK.

How to Calculate T Score in Excel

As a result, you will get the following result of the t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means.

How to Calculate T Score in Excel

Read More: How to Make Cricket Scorecard in Excel (With Easy Steps)


2. Calculate T-Score Using T.TEST and T.INV.2T Functions in Excel

In Excel, there is a pre-defined function to calculate the T score from the P stat values. Follow the below steps to use Excel functions to calculate the T score.

📌 Steps:

  • First, you have to calculate the P value of the paired sample datasets. Use the T.TEST function to calculate the P score. Paste this formula into the cell G5 to get this:
=T.TEST(C5:C12,D5:D12,2,1)

🔎 Formula Explanation:

▶ Syntax: =TTEST(array1,array2,tails,type)

  • Array1 = C5:C12: The first data set
  • Array2 = D5:D12: The Second data set
  • Tails = 2: The number of distribution tails is defined. 1 for one-tailed distribution and 2 for two-tailed distribution
  • Type = 1: 1 for Paired. 2 for Two-sample equal variance (homoscedastic), 3 for Two-sample unequal variance (heteroscedastic).

Using Excel Function

  • Then, use the T.INV.2T function to calculate the T score from the P value of the dataset. For this paste this formula into cell G6.
=T.INV.2T(G5,7)

🔎 Formula Explanation:

▶ Syntax: =T.INV.2T(probability, deg_freedom)

Where,

Probability= G5: The probability or P score that has been used.

Deg_freedom= 7: It is the value degree of freedom which is 1 minus of total count of sample data.

Using Excel Function

Thus, you have calculated the P score of a paired dataset using Excel Functions.

Read More: How to Calculate Total Score in Excel (4 Easy Ways)


3. Use Generic Formula to Calculate T-Score

Also, you can use the generic formula to calculate the T score if you have all the required values in hand. The formula for the T score is as follows below. Through this formula, you will compare a sample dataset with the full population data.

To calculate the T score using this follow these steps.

📌 Steps:

  • First, insert the values in the cells from C3 to C6.
  • Then, paste this into the cell C8 to get the T score:
=(C3-C4)/C5/SQRT(C6)

Using Generic Formula

  • Thus, you have got the T score for the sample dataset compared with the full population.

Read More: How to Create a Scoring System in Excel (With Easy Steps)


4. Use Generic Formula of Paired Sample T-Test

If you want to compare 2 sample datasets using the generic formula then you have to use this formula:

Formula of Paired Sample T-Test

To calculate the T score of paired sample datasets, follow the steps below.

📌 Steps:

  • First, calculate the mean 1 and mean 2 using the AVERAGE function. Paste this formula into cell H4 for mean 1.
=AVERAGE(C5:C12)

And, in cell H5 for a mean 2

=AVERAGE(D5:D12)
  • Then, calculate the Standard deviation, using the STDEV.P function. Paste this formula into cell H6
=STDEV.P(E5:E12)
  • After that, calculate the total size of the sample dataset using the COUNT function. Paste this formula into cell H7
=COUNT(E5:E12)
  • Finally, use this formula in cell H9 to get the T score.
=(H4-H5)/(H6/SQRT(H7))

Using Generic Formula

Finally, you have got the T score of the sample datasets.

Using Generic Formula

Read More: How to Calculate Average Score in Excel (7 Suitable Ways)


Conclusion

In this article, you have found how to calculate the T score in Excel. I hope you found this article helpful. You can visit our website ExcelDemy to learn more Excel-related content. Please, drop comments, suggestions, or queries if you have any in the comment section below.


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Osman Goni Ridwan

Osman Goni Ridwan

I am Ridwan, graduated from Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Dept, BUET, currently residing in Dhaka, Bangladesh. And my passion is to grow up my skillsets with industry demands. My prime goal is to be a data analyst as I do love to solve problems and play with data.

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