# How to Compare Three Columns Using VLOOKUP in Excel

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The VLOOKUP function is a lookup and reference function to find and fetch data from a range in Excel. It finds and compares values by rows for a single criterion. We add modifications to the formula to use this function to compare three columns. In this article, I will explain how to compare three columns using the VLOOKUP function in Excel.

Let’s say, we have a dataset of Employee Details and Departments. It contains several columns regarding employees’ names, addresses, and departments. ## 1. Inserting VLOOKUP with Helper Column to Compare Three Columns in Excel

In order to use the VLOOKUP function, we have to insert a helper column combining names and addresses into one to find and fetch the department of an employee.

Steps:

• First of all, create a helper column.
• Then, go to E5 and write down the following formula
`=B5&C5&D5`
• After that, press ENTER to get the output.  • Then, to apply the VLOOKUP function, copy any cell from the Helper Column and paste it to B17. • After that, write down the following formula in C17.
`=VLOOKUP(B17,E5:F12,2,0)`
• Then, press ENTER to get the output. Formula Explanation

• Here, the lookup_value is B17.
• The table_array is E5:F12. Excel will look for B17 in this array.
• The col_index is 2. That means, Excel will return the corresponding department name.

## 2. Applying Ampersand Sign with Excel VLOOKUP to Compare Three Columns

Ampersand (“&”) modifies the VLOOKUP function to compare multiple columns in order to apply multiple criteria. Normal VLOOKUP function can satisfy one condition in a specific column as we mentioned earlier. For our dataset, the VLOOKUP function can not find the First and Last Name, Address altogether.

However, inserting an Ampersand sign in the VLOOKUP function enables it to do so.

Steps:

• Go to E17 and write down the following formula
`=VLOOKUP(B17&C17&D17,\$B\$4:\$E\$12,4)`
• Then, press ENTER to get the output. Formula Explanation

• Here, the lookup_value is B17&C17&D17.
• The table_array is \$B\$4:\$E\$12. Excel will look for B17&C17&D17 in this array.
• The col_index is 4. That means, Excel will return the corresponding department name.

## 3. Using Excel VLOOKUP-MATCH Formula to Compare Three Columns

The VLOOKUP and MATCH functions can create a dynamic column index to locate any reference we choose to look for. We change our dataset as Employee’s Salary data and wish to fetch monthly salary as we enter Employee Name & Month.

Here is the new dataset. The steps are given below.

Steps:

• Firstly, go to D17 and write down the following formula
`=VLOOKUP(B17,\$B\$5:\$E\$12,MATCH(C17,B4:E4,0),0)`
• After that, press ENTER to get the output. Formula Breakdown

• MATCH(C17,B4:E4,0)This indicates the col_index for the VLOOKUP function.
• Output: 2.
• VLOOKUP(B17,\$B\$5:\$E\$12,MATCH(C17,B4:E4,0),0) This becomes,
• VLOOKUP(B17,\$B\$5:\$E\$12,2,0)
• Output: 1000

## How to Combine INDEX and MATCH Functions to Compare Three Columns in Excel

The INDEX function fetches the entries of a cell in a dataset depending on the column and row number. The MATCH Function fetches a cell’s position in a row of a reference from a selected range of cells. Thus the combination of these two functions acts as a replacement for the VLOOKUP function.

Steps:

• Go to E17 and write down the following formula
`=INDEX(E5:E12,MATCH(1,(B5:B12=B17)*(C5:C12=C17)*(D5:D12=D17),0))`
• Since this is an array formula, press CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER to get the output. Formula Breakdown

• (B5:B12=B17)*(C5:C12=C17)*(D5:D12=D17) → This is the lookup_array for the MATCH function.
• Output: {0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1}
• MATCH(1,(B5:B12=B17)*(C5:C12=C17)*(D5:D12=D17),0) This is the row_num for the INDEX function.
• Output: 8
• INDEX(E5:E12,MATCH(1,(B5:B12=B17)*(C5:C12=C17)*(D5:D12=D17),0)) → This becomes,
• INDEX(E5:E12,8)
• Output: Assistance

Notice the curly bracket {} in the formula bar. It indicates an array formula.

## Conclusion

In this article, I have demonstrated 3 effective methods in Excel to split data into columns by comma. I hope it helps everyone. If you have any suggestions, ideas, or feedback, please feel free to comment below. Goodbye!

## What is ExcelDemy?

ExcelDemy Learn Excel & Excel Solutions Center provides free Excel tutorials, free support , online Excel training and Excel consultancy services for Excel professionals and businesses. Feel free to contact us with your Excel problems. Maruf Islam

My self, Maruf Islam, an engineer and Excel & VBA Content developer on Exceldemy. I enjoy solving problems, finding workable solutions, and most of the part I really like to take on challenges. On Exceldemy I write articles discussing various way outs of Microsoft Excel's stuck ons.

1. Reply Thanks Maruf, very useful information

• Reply Shamima Sultana Nov 28, 2023 at 10:30 AM

You are welcome.

Regards
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