**Method 1 – Use of Relative Cell Reference in Formila in Excel **

**Steps: **

- In cell
**F5**, write the following formula to calculate the**Price**as a**product**of the**Unit Price**and**Quantity**

`=D5*E5`

- Hit
**Enter**and the result is**21**(=10.5*2). - Pick the fill handler for cell
**F5**at the bottom right corner of the cell, hold and drag it down to the cells**F6:F9**of column**F**.

- The above steps
**copied**the formula of cell**F5**and then pasted it to**F6:F9**with relative references.

Click any of the cells from **F6:F9**. We clicked on cell **F8 **which shows the formula as a product of cells **D8 **and **E8**, relative to the row number of cell** F8.**

**Method 2 – ****Absolute Cell Reference in Excel Formula**

**Steps:**

- Calculate the
**Price After Tax,**write the following formula in cell**G5**–

`=F5+(F5*$C$11)`

To make cell **C11 **an absolute reference we put the **$ **sign before the column value C and also before the row value **11**, which is **$C$11.** Here **F5 **is a relative reference that will change relative to the row number downwards.

- Hit
**Enter**and the result is**22.58**(=21+21*.075). - Copy and paste the formula to cells
**G6:G9**locate the fill handler, drag it down to the cells and finally, release the cursor.

- The above steps copied the formula of cell
**F5**and then pasted it to**F6:F9**with absolute references.

We see each of the values of the **Price After Tax **column used the absolute cell reference** $C$11.** Let’s click on cell G8. It shows the formula which contains the **relative cell reference F8 **according to the row number of **G8 **but the absolute cell reference **$C$11** remains constant**.**

**Method 3 – ****Write Formula Using Mixed Cell Reference in Excel**

**Steps**:

- In cell
**G6,**write the following formula-

`=$F6+($F6*C$13)`

We put the tax rate cell reference as **C$13** which is mixed. We put the **$** sign before the column value **13** to make it absolute column-wise and left the row value** C** without the **$** sign as it’ll be relative row-wise.

There is another way to look at the formula. **$F6 **is also a mixed cell reference. It is relative through the column cells and absolute through the row cells while calculating the **Price After Tax** values.

- Hit
**Enter**and the output is**58**(=21+21*0.075). - Locate the fill handler and drag it to the right to calculate values for different tax rates of different time durations.

- The output shows three
**Price After Tax**values for three different tax values.

Double click on cell** I6.** In the formula, we can see the tax rate cell reference is **E$13 (C$13 **in cell **G6 **formula) which is relative row-wise. The total price cell reference **$F6** didn’t change as it was in the formula for** G6** which is absolute row-wise**.**

- Locate the fill handler at the
**r**ight bottom corner of cell**G6**and drag it down to**G6:G10.**

- Double click cell
**G9**to explain what happens here. In the formula, we can see the tax rate cell reference is**C$13 (**also**C$13**in cell**G6**formula) which is absolute column-wise**.**The total price cell reference**$F6**did change to**$F9**which is relative column-wise**.**

- Get all the values for
**Price After Tax**following the previous steps.

**Notes**

We can also use a cell reference from one worksheet in a formula that is in another worksheet, i.e., across multiple worksheets. We used the mixed tax rate cell reference from the mixed worksheet. Although the formula is in the worksheet, which is named a ‘different worksheet’ for this, we need to put the worksheet name in a quote and an exclamation (!) sign afterward. Put the cell reference**.** See the example below:

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