How to Use Arithmetic Operators in Excel (a Detailed Guide)

Types of Operators in Excel

There are four kinds of operators for calculation. They are:

  1. Arithmetic
  2. Comparison
  3. Text concatenation
  4. Reference
  • Arithmetic Operators:

We use the arithmetic operators to execute fundamental mathematical operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as well as to combine numbers and obtain numerical outputs. We covered them in the later sections of this article.

  • Comparison Operators:

You can compare two values using the comparison operators. These operators compare two values, and the outcome is a logical value that can be either TRUE or FALSE. Comparison operators are: Equal symbol (=), Greater than symbol (>), Less than symbol (<), Greater than or equal to a symbol (>=), Less than or equal to a symbol (<=), and Not equal to a symbol (<>).

  • Text Concatenation Operators:

To combine or concatenate two or more text strings into a single piece of text, use the ampersand (&) operator.

  • Reference Operators:

We can combine ranges of cells for calculations with these operators.

The reference operators are: Colon (:), Comma (,), Space, Pound (#) and At (@).

Arithmetic Operators in Excel

There are 6 basic arithmetic operators in Excel. They are:

  1. + (Addition Operator)
  2. – (Minus Operator)
  3. * (Multiplication Operator)
  4. / (Division Operator)
  5. ^ (Exponent Operator)
  6. % (Percentage Operator)

In the following sections of this article, we will show examples of these arithmetic operators in Excel. The following image shows the arithmetic operators with short descriptions and applications.

Overview of Using Arithmetic Operators in Excel

1. Plus (+) Operator

The plus operator adds two or more numbers. However, whenever you enter a formula in Excel, you can’t just type 2+2 in a cell to get the summation result between 2 and 2. You have to put an Equal (=) symbol at the beginning of the formula.

The following image shows how to add two numbers using the plus operator in Excel.

Summing Numbers by Plus Arithmetic Operator in Excel

In the image above, you can see that we can add two numbers either by hard coding or referencing cells that contain numbers. Here, the numbers are in the C4 and D4 cells. Adding the cell references C4 and D4 will return the sum value.

Moreover, you can use the plus operator multiple times to add multiple numbers.

2. Minus (-) Operator

The use of the minus operator is similar to the plus operator. Follow the image below.

Subtracting Numbers by Minus Arithmetic Operator in Excel

You can also use an algebraic expression to subtract a number from another in Excel. Here is the image below.

Subtracting Numbers by Algebraic Expression

3. Multiplication (*) Operator (Asterisk)

The following picture shows how to apply the asterisk (*) symbol to multiply two numbers.

Multiplying Numbers by Multiplication Arithmetic Operator in Excel

Like the addition and subtraction procedures, you can use the numbers directly or reference the cells for multiplication.

4. Division (/) Operator

In the image, you will see how division works in an Excel workbook.

Dividing Numbers by Division Operator

5. Exponent Or Circumflex (^) Operator

The exponent operator shows the power of a number. We want to find the cube value of 8 or 8 to the power of 3. Follow the image below to see how to calculate this value.Finding Power by Exponent Operator

6. Percentage (%) Operator

The percentage operator shows a number as a fraction of 100. However, if you use the percentage operator with a number, you will see a decimal number. You need to change the number format to Percentage to show the number in percentage.Use of Percentage Operator

Note: All the operators mentioned in their applications can also be done using Excel’s mathematical functions. Working with mathematical functions will be much easier if your dataset consists of a huge set of numbers. If you want to know more about mathematical functions, please review article 44, Mathematical Functions in Excel.

VBA Arithmetic Operators in Excel

1. Operators for Mathematical Calculations


  • We created some buttons to calculate addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc. See the image below.

Initiating Arithmetic Calculation of Two Numbers by VBA

  • To create the buttons, select Developer >> Insert >> Button from the Form Controls. Give the buttons suitable names.

Creation of Buttons to Assign Macros

  • Press Alt + F11 to open the VBA editor window.
  • Select Insert >> Module to open a Module.

Opening a VBA Module

  • Enter the code below in the VBA Module:
Sub AddNumbers()
Dim K As Double
K = Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C4").Value + _
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("D4").Value
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C6").Value = K
End Sub
Sub SubtractNumbers()
Dim K As Double
K = Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C4").Value - _
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("D4").Value
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C7").Value = K
End Sub
Sub MultiplyNumbers()
Dim K As Double
K = Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C4").Value * _
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("D4").Value
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C8").Value = K
End Sub
Sub DivideNumbers()
Dim K As Double
K = Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C4").Value / _
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("D4").Value
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C9").Value = K
End Sub
Sub CalculateRemainder()
Dim K As Double
K = Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C4").Value Mod _
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("D4").Value
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C10").Value = K
End Sub
Sub ClearCells()
Sheets("vba calculation").Range("C6:C10").Value = ""
End Sub

Macros for Arithmetic Calculations

In this Module, several Macros calculate Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, and Remainder, respectively. An additional Macro clears the cells after calculation, too.

The understanding of this code isn’t that complex, although it looks a bit large. You can see that all the Macros are similar except their arithmetic operators. The AddNumbers Macro has the Plus (+) operator to add numbers in the C4 and D4 cells of the VBA calculation sheet. Similarly, the following Macros contain Minus (-), Multiplication (*), Division (/), and Remainder (Mod) operators. The ClearCells Macro removes the data range C6:C10 while executed.

  • We will be assigning the Macros to the corresponding buttons.
  • Right-click the button and select Assign Macro from the Context Menu. Here, we are assigning a Macro to the Addition button.

Assigning Macro to Addition Button

  • Select the desired Macro (AddNumbers) in the Assign Macro window and click OK.

Macro Assigned to Addition Button

  • Assign the other Macros to the corresponding buttons.
  • Click on the buttons to find out their arithmetic operation results.

Follow the video below to see the results just by clicking the buttons.

VBA arithmetic operators are useful for automatic calculations. We can store or clear the results automatically, while we had to do this manually using Excel formulas.

2. Bit-Shift Operators

Bit-Shift operators are the left-shift and right-shift operators. In VBA, they are noted as Bitlshift and Bitrshift, respectively. As noted, the left-shift operator repeatedly shifts bits to the left.

For instance, the binary form of 32 is 100000. If we shift its bits 3 times to the left, the binary format becomes 100000000 and the decimal value of it is 28 or 256. Like the left-shift operator, the right-shift operator repeatedly shifts bits to the right. In that case, 100000 will be reduced to 100, and its value will be 22 or 4.

Below, you will find two Macros showing the right and left Bit-Shift.

Sub RightShift()
Dim m As Double
m = 32
p = Application.WorksheetFunction.Bitrshift(m, 3)
MsgBox p
End Sub
Sub LeftShift()
Dim m As Double
m = 32
q = Application.WorksheetFunction.Bitlshift(m, 3)
MsgBox q
End Sub

Macro to Operate BitShift Operators

The following MsgBox shows the right shifted value if the RightShift Macro is executed.

Returning Value of Right Shift Operator

And this one shows the left-shifted value if the LeftShift Macro is executed.

Returning Value of Left Shift Operator

Combining Arithmetic Operators in Excel

We can combine arithmetic operators in Excel to get a simplified value from several data. For example, we know that 3+2*4 equals 11. If we operate this calculation manually, we must calculate 2*4 first and then add it to 3. This would be a time-consuming procedure. Instead, we can combine the operators to get the result at once.

In the following image, some combined arithmetic expressions are illustrated along with their corresponding values.

Combining Arithmetic Operators

Things to Remember

  • Always use the equal symbol at the beginning of a formula. Otherwise, you will only get a text value.
  • Keep the numeric data in the proper format. Failure to maintain formatting may lead to an error.

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Meraz Al Nahian
Meraz Al Nahian

Md. Meraz Al Nahian has worked with the ExcelDemy project for over 1.5 years. He wrote 140+ articles for ExcelDemy. He also solved a lot of user problems and worked on dashboards. He is interested in data analysis, advanced Excel, statistics, and dashboards. He also likes to explore various Excel and VBA applications. He completed his graduation in Electrical & Electronic Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET). He enjoys exploring Excel-related features to gain efficiency... Read Full Bio

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