Introduction to VBA Features and Applications

VBA is one of the key components of Microsoft Office applications. Not only does it ease up many processes starting from a few required clicks but it also provides access to some functions that are beyond the normal usage in these applications. Another advantage of it is to automate and speed up procedures that are longer and repetitive with the help of a few lines of code. This article will focus on introducing different features and aspects of VBA and some useful applications with breakdowns of the codes for the introduction of basic automation.

What Is VBA?

A macro is a sequence of instructions. This sequence of instructions automates some aspects of Excel you do regularly. When you’re automating some of your work in Excel using Macro, you can perform more efficiently and with fewer errors. For example, you may create a macro to format and print your month-end sales report. After the macro is developed, you can then execute the macro to perform many time-consuming procedures automatically.

A user doesn’t have to be a power user to create and use simple VBA macros. Casual users can simply turn on Excel’s macro recorder: Excel will record your actions and will convert them into a VBA macro. When you execute this macro, Excel performs the actions again.

Advanced users, though, can write code that tells Excel to perform tasks that can’t be recorded. For example, you can write procedures that display custom dialog boxes, process data in a series of workbooks, and even create special-purpose add-ins.

Note: You may confuse VBA with VB (VB stands for Visual Basic). VB is a programming language. It lets you create executable programs (EXE files). Though VBA and VB have a lot in common, they are different programming languages.

When to Use VBA and Why?

Before diving deep into the introduction to VBA features and applications, let’s discuss when to use VBA and why. In short, you can use VBA at any time. All of the normal Office processes can be done with the help of VBA. Then again it may not be practical to write down lines of code which you can do with some simple clicks. So here are some scenarios where VBA is particularly helpful and why:

Automation of Repetitive Tasks

Imagine a spreadsheet in Excel containing data on sales of different employees and you want to single out the ones who sold higher than a certain amount. A normal option would be to use the conditional formatting feature to highlight them and find out. Now imagine there are thirty of those spreadsheets in the workbook. Of course, you can follow the same procedure thirty times. Nevertheless, it would be boring and time-consuming. If we use VBA instead, we could just write the code that does the required action once in a module and run the code for as many numbers as possible.

This is one of the most important reasons people use VBA.

Extending Scopes of User Interaction

VBA provides some functionalities that normal Office applications do not offer through features. Keep in mind that there are so many features that are not showing on the ribbon that you still need to enable through settings. Still, it doesn’t compare to the features VBA can deliver. And if you are in a scenario where you need to utilize those features, you might be in dire need to use VBA.

Interacting Between Office Applications

VBA makes moving information from one office application to another quite easy. For example, you might need to move your Excel data for a Powerpoint presentation or maybe in a report in Word. A simple copy and paste sometimes don’t cut it when you need to present it in a certain way or the process might be too lengthy. VBA offers ways to do such things with ease.

Creative Way of Doing Things

Sometimes using VBA is just fun. Building up logic to process information and complete actions is fun stuff for many people. And Experts tend to gravitate towards using it. One cause of it is repeatability of course. Although you may need time to adjust to the coding languages and environment, especially if you are new to coding and stuff, VBA provides fun ways to perform otherwise complex processes.

Common Uses of VBA

Some practical uses of VBA include but are not limited to:

Usage in Finance

Microsoft Excel in general covers a wide variety of tools to cover tasks in financial fields. VBA makes the job a lot easier. Common uses of VBA in finance include:

  • Analyzing Large Amounts of Data: In the finance world, it is pretty common to store, analyze and evaluate huge amounts of data on a daily basis for decision-making purposes. Although Excel provides some benefits for that, it still cannot rival VBA.
  • Create/Maintain Complex Models: We can use Excel VBA to create trading and risk, management models. We can use these models to track, evaluate, and forecast trends of stock and find a suitable time to buy a particular one.
  • Creating Better Investment Options: Excel VBA offers more flexibility when it comes to analyzing and forecasting. So we can evaluate and predict any business model more closely and invest according to the results of the predicted return on investments. This removes the interference of human error and provides calculated risks which in turn help decision makers make logical decisions.

Usage in Marketing

VBA can widely be used in marketing sectors also. With the help of VBA, we can analyze marketing metrics for social media, collect data online, create interactive content calendars, create forecasting and graphic models, create invoices and develop charts that can help us promote a certain product or help strengthen the position of an organization.

Usage in Programming

VBA’s usage in programming is limitless. As we have mentioned time and time again that VBA provides more flexibility than any of the Office applications can provide. It is not only limited to helping us store data more easily, analyze scientific data, and develop databases and charts from databases but also provides means of performing Excel or other Office actions and many more. One relevant example would be to create custom functions and define tasks that it would do when the function is called upon. That way we can make our custom functions to perform certain tasks that Excel, by default, does not provide.

Read More: What You Can Do with VBA

Features of VBA

VBA in Office applications, especially Excel, contains the following features.

Macro: Macro has always been an important part of Excel VBA going back as far as Excel 2003. You can record a macro in Excel through the Record Macro option from the Developer tab. Or as experts tend to prefer, you can write your own lines of code. Both have their advantages and disadvantages.

Workbook and Worksheet Object: Excel VBA can contain objects. These objects can contain other objects which can have another within them. This can go on. In fact, the whole workbook itself is an object in Excel VBA that we consider has different objects within it. The workbook leads the hierarchy of the objects.

Range Objects: Range is a collection of cells in Excel. A range object is the same. Range objects can start from 2 cells to the spreadsheet’s maximum capacity. It is the most important object in terms of VBA’s usage. Different functions of range objects include copying, moving, naming these ranges, formatting, etc.

Collections: Excel functions objects can both be singular and plural forms. Such as a worksheet and worksheets, range and ranges, etc. The plural variants are collections.

Loop: Loops are the fundamental portion of Excel VBA that automates long and repetitive tasks. Loop, as the name suggests, creates a loop and executes a single task multiple times for all object components or any set number of times described in a loop. There are three types of loops in Excel VBA- the For loop, the Do While loop, and the Do Until loop.

Array: Like other programming languages, Arrays in VBA indicate a structure that contains the same type of data in the same place. Arrays can both be one-dimensional and multi-dimensional.

String Manipulation: String manipulation means the conversion of other types of data into a string type to work with it in different scenarios. VBA’s STR function does that. It is a built-in function and one of the popular ones.

Date/Time: The DATE function in Excel can help with the manipulation of date and time. It returns the current date system.

Properties and Methods: You can set properties for objects. It calls out their approaches. Setting a property changes the control of an object. Meanwhile, calling out means calling objects makes the object perform its task.

Procedure: This is the execution style of the code. VBA, like any other programming language, goes through line by line and executes each line of code one after the other. There are two types of procedures. One is sub procedure and the other is called a function.

Statement: A statement is an instruction or a set of instructions. We can break it down into two parts- a declaration or naming of variables, ranges, functions, etc., and an executable statement. An executable statement is the designated piece of code that defines what a particular action is.

Variables: Generally, by variable, we mean the storage location for a particular item. Excel can store ranges, particular values, cell values, and even worksheets as variables.

Logical Operators: Logical operators are of two types- TRUE and FALSE. Both indicate whether a condition is fulfilled or not in any particular scenario.

Where to Write Code in VBA?

Enough with the comments of VBA. But how do you actually use it in office applications? Here is a simple introduction to the procedure of using VBA features and applications.

All of the Office applications have a Developer tab in their ribbon. You may find it hidden usually. You need to enable it through the settings option. We are more focused on the usage and application of Microsoft Excel here. But it is almost the same for any other Office application. Nevertheless, here is a demonstration of enabling the tab, using modules and running a sample code to show you how it works.

Enabling Developer Tab

If you do not have the Developer tab on your ribbon, follow these steps:

  • First, click on the File tab on your ribbon.

  • Then select Options from the backstage view.

  • As a result, the Excel Options box will open up.
  • Now go to the Customize Ribbon tab here.
  • After that, select Main Tools under Customize the Ribbon.
  • Then check Developer under Main Tools in the box below it.

enabling developer tab in introduction to vba features and applications

  • Finally, click on OK.

This will add the Developer tab to your ribbon.

developer tab available in introduction to vba features and applications

Inserting Module in VBA

Once you have the Developer tab, you will have access to the VBA editor window that will enable you to add, edit or remove a VBA code. Individual VBA codes are generally stored in a place called Module. It is usually a good practice to store different codes in different modules. Here is how you can create a module in the VBA window.


  • First, go to the Developer tab on your ribbon.
  • Then select Visual Basic from the Code group section.

opening vba window in introduction to vba features and applications

  • At this point, you will notice the VBA window open up on your screen. Now click on the Insert tab on the window.
  • Then select Module.

inserting module as introduction to vba features and applications

This will create a module in the VBA window. You can find the modules on the left side of the window and on the right you can write the code.

introduction to vba features and applications

Writing and Running VBA

After you create a module, you can write or insert any valid code there to run it. If there is no error in the code, VBA will execute it line by line and return the final result.

For example, let’s take a simple VBA code that turns a cell color blue. Follow the previously described steps to insert a module and insert the following code there.

Sub change_cell_blue()
Range("B2").Interior.ColorIndex = 37
End Sub

Now press F5 to run the code instantly.

You will notice the cell color of B2 of the active spreadsheet will change to light blue.

If you want to run the code later, you can also do that by going to the Developer tab and selecting Macros from the Code group.

Then you can see the list of macros the workbook contains. Select the one with the proper sub name (the name you enter after “sub” in the VBA code) and click on Run.

running macros as introduction to vba features and applications

Read More: 20 Practical Coding Tips to Master Excel VBA

Introduction to VBA Features and Applications: 4 Suitable Examples

Moving on, let’s see a bit more advanced examples as the introduction of VBA features and applications for different purposes. Some of these processes take a longer time to complete using manual processes. We can perform them effortlessly through VBA.

For demonstration, we have a sample dataset like this.

1. Inserting Multiple Worksheets

At first, our workbook has one sheet in it.

Now let’s try a code that can enter multiple sheets at a time. Usually, you can just click on the plus sign beside the sheet name at the bottom. But the beauty of the code is you can do that for any number of sheets avoiding all the clicks.

Follow these steps to see how you can do that.


  • First, go to the Developer tab on your ribbon.
  • Then select Visual Basic from the Code group section.

  • Next, click on Insert in the VBA window and select Module in from the drop-down.

  • Now select the module by double-clicking on it if it isn’t selected already.
  • Then insert the following code in it.
Sub Add_Multiple_Sheets()
'Declaring variable
Dim SheetsNumber As Integer
'Put the number of sheets
SheetsNumber = InputBox("Enter number of sheets to insert", "Enter number of sheets")
'Adding the additional sheets after the current active sheet
Sheets.Add After:=ActiveSheet, Count:=SheetsNumber
End Sub
  • After that, press F5 to run the code instantly.
  • As a result, a pop-up box will appear asking for the number of sheets you want to insert. For the demonstration, let’s say we insert 3.

entering multiple sheets in introduction to vba features and applications

  • Then press OK.
  • You will notice there will be new sheets in the workbook because of the execution of the code.

multiple worksheets inserted in introduction to vba features and applications

2. Changing Letters from Upper Case to Lower case

Let’s now look at the usage of FOR and IF as part of the introduction to VBA features and applications. We will be utilizing them for changing string values in a range to all upper case letters.

Follow these steps to see how we can do that.


  • First, select the range you want to change to upper case. Here, we are selecting the range B5:B10 for the demonstration.
  • go to the Developer tab on your ribbon.
  • Then select Visual Basic from the Code group section.

  • Next, click on Insert in the VBA window and select Module in from the drop-down.

inserting module in introduction to vba features and applications

  • Now select the module by double-clicking on it if it isn’t selected already.
  • Then insert the following code in it.
Sub Convert_To_UPPER_Case()
'Declaring variable
Dim Xrng As Range
'Using For Each loop
For Each Xrng In Selection.Cells
'Using If Statement
If Xrng.HasFormula = False Then
'Specify the Range
Xrng.Value = UCase(Xrng.Value)
End If
Next Xrng
End Sub
  • Now press F5 to run the code instantly.

The dataset will look like this now with all the cells in the selected range containing upper letters.

all upper case letter introduction to vba features and applications

3. Highlight Cells with Misspelled Words Across Workbook

Let’s make some modifications to the dataset now.

As you can see there are some spelling mistakes in the spreadsheet. We will now identify them using VBA. The code will highlight them for us that will lessen our work of individually finding them.


  • Firstly, go to the Developer tab on your ribbon.
  • Secondly, select Visual Basic from the Code group section.

  • Thirdly, click on Insert in the VBA window and select Module in from the drop-down.

  • Now select the module by double-clicking on it if it isn’t selected already.
  • Then insert the following code in it.
Sub Check_Spelling_Error()
'Declaring variable
Dim MyCheck As Range
'Using For Each loop
For Each MyCheck In ActiveSheet.UsedRange
'Using this statement to check spelling mistake
If Not Application.CheckSpelling(Word:=MyCheck.Text) Then
'Coloring the misspelled words
MyCheck.Interior.Color = vbRed
End If
Next MyCheck
End Sub
  • After that, press F5 to run the code instantly.

mistakes marked using vba

This is how we can identify mistakes and errors using VBA very easily.

4. Sorting All Sheets Alphabetically

At this point, we have four sheets in our spreadsheet.

Now rearranging them by clicking and dragging isn’t much of a chore when you have this low number of sheets. But when you will have a much higher number, you might want to automate the process.

Follow these steps to see how you can sort all of the sheets in alphabetical order.


  • First of all, go to the Developer tab on your ribbon.
  • Now select Visual Basic from the Code group section.

  • Next, click on Insert in the VBA window and select Module in from the drop-down.

  • Then select the module by double-clicking on it if it isn’t selected already.
  • After that, insert the following code in it.
Sub Sort_Worksheets_Alphabetically()
'Fast the code running time
Application.ScreenUpdating = False
'Declaring variables
Dim MySheetCount As Integer, x As Integer, y As Integer
MySheetCount = Sheets.Count
'Using nested For loop to sort the worksheets alphabetically
For x = 1 To MySheetCount - 1
For y = x + 1 To MySheetCount
If UCase(Sheets(y).Name) < UCase(Sheets(x).Name) Then
Sheets(y).Move before:=Sheets(x)
End If
Next y
Next x
Application.ScreenUpdating = True
End Sub
  • Finally, press F5 to run the code instantly.

all sheets sorted alphabetically using vba

We can see now that all the spreadsheets are now in alphabetical order.

Some VBA Shortcuts

After some VBA features and applications, here are some of the important shortcut keys you can use as an introduction.

F1: Opens up help options

F5: Runs the current code in the module

F8: Steps into a code by lines

F9: Inserts a breakpoint

Shift+F2: Motions to the definition of function or procedure

Shift+F8: Starts executing the code by one procedure at a stretch

Shift+F10: Shows shortcut menu for the selected item

Ctrl+F6: Moves to the next window

Ctrl+F8: Run to the position of the cursor

Ctrl+F10: Activates menu bar

Ctrl+Shift+F8: Step out of the code

Ctrl+Shift+F9: Clear all breakpoints

Alt+F11: Toggles between VBA and application window

Ctrl+A: Select all in the module

Ctrl+C: Copy selection

Ctrl+S: Save the current state

Ctrl+V: Pastes clipboard materials

Ctrl+X: Cuts selection

Shift+Insert: Pastes current clipboard material

Tab: Indents line of code

Shift+Tab: Unindent code

Enter: Insert a new line in the code

Shift+Home: Select the start of the line

Shift+End: Selects end of line

Ctrl+Tab: Moves to the next module

Security Issues with VBA

Now that the introduction to VBA applications and features, here are some issues you may run into while using macros and files containing macros. Microsoft Office prevents from saving files with macros with the same extension as the normal file. For example, a saved Excel file has the .xlsx extension. But with a macro saved within it must have the .xlsm extension. This is generally due to the protection of users against viruses and dangerous macro codes.

Sometimes, with the downloaded files, you may notice the macros are disabled. Microsoft Office will prevent them automatically from running. You can specify folders for macros to run by creating trusted locations. You can create trusted locations from the Options dialog box. Then choose Trust Center and Trust Center Settings.

You will find Trust Center Settings in the Excel Options box here like the following figure.

Once you click on it, check the following options and then click on OK.

trust issue settings options

This should prevent Excel from showing the disabled error message.

Download Practice Workbook

You can download the workbook used for the demonstration from the link below.


That’s all about VBA for today. Hopefully, your introduction to VBA features and applications was illuminating. I hope you found this guide helpful and informative. If you have any questions or suggestions, let us know in the comments below.

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Kawser Ahmed
Kawser Ahmed

Kawser Ahmed is a Microsoft Excel Expert, Udemy Course Instructor, Data Analyst, Finance professional, and Chief Editor of ExcelDemy. He is the founder and CEO of SOFTEKO (a software and content marketing company). He has a B.Sc in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. As a Udemy instructor, he offers 8 acclaimed Excel courses, one selected for Udemy Business. A devoted MS Excel enthusiast, Kawser has contributed over 200 articles and reviewed thousands more. His expertise extends to Data Analysis,... Read Full Bio

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